Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

Use of all senses (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, Olfactory) to re-create or create experience in the mind.


Imagery should involve as many senses as possible Sport psychologists have looked at 3 different kinds of evidence to see if imagery enhances performance. Anecdotal reports, case studies and scientific experiments. Athletes usually take either an internal or external perspective for viewing their imagery

Athletes that use imagery can use imagery in many ways to improve both physical and psychological skills. Uses include improving concentration, building confidence, controlling emotional responses, acquiring and practising sport skills and strategies, and coping with pain or injury.

Before and after competition

Before and after practice

During off season

During personal time

During breaks in action

When recovering from injury

Motor imagery as a force generating image of self in action from first person (internal) perspective (Jeannerod, (197)

Required =
Physical Mental

Motor imagery must involve sequential organization of actions. Recalling information from past experiences and shaping meaningful images, this includes senses, moods and emotions experienced. Seeing success

Start simple and progress (simple but stable environment skill, i.e. a free throw in basketball) If athlete performs the skill well, encourage them to form a mental image of the skill being executed and how it felt at the moment of release Encourage the athlete to visualise excelling in areas before they compete or practice Haphazard use is no good needs to be regular and systematic Imagery uses more than just visualization need to use all the senses to create or re-create experiences

Certain situations can cause stress imagine yourself in a place that makes you happy and calm inside and controls the stress you feel. dueE If your still distracted it can lead to poor performance n-VQ&feature=related

Developed by Holmes and Collins (2001), Initial research shows PETTLEP model is highly effective in producing performance gains Involves a 7 point check-list P Physical E Environment T Task T- Timing L Learning E Emotion P Perspective o Explored the effect of short term PETTLEP imagery involvement, in comparison to the traditional theory in a cognitive task. o PETTLEP produces a realistic and more functionally equal imagery experience than the traditional factors (Lie down and visualise) Knackstedt, paul, M.S ( 2011)

way image is viewed internal/external

Reflects the physical nature of actual situation




Physical surroundings

include all emotions and arousal chartacaitlaclly.


Motor Imagery
Learning Timing


similarity of task is imaged to actual task being performed

Imagery should be adapted in response to learning.

image performed at the same pace

Psychoneuromu -scluar Theory (Jacobson, 1931)

Speaks to the mechanism inside the brain that trigger muscular response and ability of MI to trigger the same response as does physical activity.

Symbolic Learning theory ( Sackett,1934)

Follows the cognitive framework of information mental blue print and learning

Bioinformational theory (lang, 1979)

Behavioural view of activating stored environmental and stimulus responses in order to better perform a task.

PETTLEP (Holmes and Collins (2011)

Provides functional equivalence between imaged action and the actual execution of the task.

Importance of PETTLEP Emotion component = encourages the individual to experience arousal linked with the performance, this therefore is beneficial effect as it can help to improve self-efficacy Having high self efficiency induces the belief of their own ability to exercise regularly, hence, why frequent exercisers use of imagery more. commonly used the frequent exerciser than the less frequent.
 Split in three groups  Come up with one sport and one skill, using sheets provided developed a PETTLEP model you as a coach can develop an athletes performance in your choose skill.

 Each group should have different sports i.e. - Group 1 - Gymnastics, - Group 2 - football, - Group 3 - badminton, 10 MINS to develop a PETTLEP imagery scene  As a group you are going to briefly present to the class.

Hockey penalty flicks Two separate six week imagery interventions Physical and environmental components of PETTLEP were manipulated. Involved three intervention groups performing imagery of 10 penalty kicks daily for 6 weeks.

Wearing hockey clothes whist stood on a hockey pitch Group 1 i.ephysical & Environment Wearing hockey clothes whist stood at home Group 2 Physical only Wearing hockey clothes whist sat down at home. Group 3 i.e. No PETTLEP elements

What is your thoughts on seeing is believing.

As of the 1988 Olympic games in Seoul, Korea, 86% of sport psychology consultants use imagery with their athletes. Gould, et al.. (1989)

Wright, Caroline J. And Smith, Dave K. (2007) The effect of a short-term PETTLEP imagery intervention on a cognative task, Journal of imagery research in sport and physcial activity: Vol. 2:Iss. 1, Article 1 Knackstedt, paul, m.s, optimal timing of a pettlep mental imagery intervention on a Dart throwing task ( 2011) Driskell,Cooper, & Moran, 1994). Examining the emotion aspect of PETTLEP Based imagery with penalty taking in soccer. 01-SEP-10 Journal of sport behavoiur of.html last accessed:- 10/11/2011