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Glass was used only for windows and other aesthetic purposes. Due to its cheap cost and transparent property glass is more preferred by the designers to obtain a fully transparent structure. Nowadays instead of glass being supported on metal beams and columns it is used as a structural member. Glass is isotropic, inorganic, visco-elastic material without lattice structure. Typical composition 

Silica SiO2 Lime CaO Soda Na2O

70 ± 74% 5 ± 12% 12 ± 16%


Material properties: ‚ High durability ‚ Resistance to  water percolation  corrosion  salt water  carbonated water  strong acids  organic solvents  ultra-violet radiation Glass property
Density, Modulus of elasticity Shear modulus , G Poisons ratio Coefficient of thermal expansion, T Thermal conductivity , Compressive strength Tensile strength

2500 70,000 30,000 0.23 7.7-8.8x10-3 1.0 Up to 1000 10-100

Kg/m3 MPa MPa 1/K W/mK MPa MPa



ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . such a definite value is not available for glass. Manufacturers have charts with probabilities associated with different stresses. Glass has a no single minimum strength. y This similarity led some practicing engineers to adopt design methods for y y y y glass based on the approach used for steel. Steel has a allowable stress based on yield stress and it¶s a definite value. Strength properties of glass relevant to structural engineering can be explained by considering the cracks present on the surface.BASIC CONCEPTS y The use of glass as beams has some similarities with steel.

which is independent of stresses at which fracture occurs. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . y Crack size design is based on the fracture mechanics of elastic materials.FRACTURE AND OBSERVED STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS y Here we are considering the glass subjected to only tension. y It does not deals with buckling of glass.

K I -used in fracture mechanics to more accurately predict the stress state near the tip of the crack. KI. KIC . ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .75) Glass fails when KI tends to KIC. the applied stress normal to the crack( ) and the crack size(a) is given by: KI = Y (ša)1/2 Y-is a function of crack length and width(=0. Later Irwin and others modified this to develop stress intensity factor. General relationship between stress intensity factor.Relevant fracture mechanics y Griffith proposed the concept of fracture mechanics based on how the y y y y y y surface energy is distributed around the crack and the instant at which the failure occurs.Critical stress intensity factor.

Variability in the short term strength of the glass not only depends on its material but also in the cracks on the surface. Depends on the handling of the glass after production.Short term strength of glass y y y y Strength of glass under short term loading is not constant. orientation of glass sheet in production process and other factors. Distribution in cracks and their sizes are quite variable. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

1.2% relative humidity. 290C 2. Soda lime glass in Distilled Water.Crack growth y For a pre-existing crack. 250C 3. 290C Slow crack-growth speed data ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . Soda lime glass in Water. Soda lime glass in 0. crack will grow if subjected to stress less than that required to reach KIC.

For structural projects. y n Idealization of experimental results ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .y Region I Depends on environment. y Crack propagation in region II & III are high. y Region II-Transition zone for I & III. it seems reasonable to solely rely on slow-crack growth of region I. so crack growth leads to failure of glass in fraction of seconds. y Region III.Linear relationship which corresponds to the crack propagation relationship for glass in vacuum.

Static fatigue y The duration for which a constant stress can be sustained by a piece of glass reduces as the stress increases. the stress intensity factor reaches the critical value and failure occurs. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . This decrease in static strength with time is usually referred to as ³static fatigue´. under the applied load. Variation in strength with duration of loading y Critical crack grows to such an extent that.

rather than a unique minimum stress For known initial crack size . Cyclic Loading y y Cyclic loading at lower loads than the ultimate strength will still cause failure. In design additional cyclic loading effects need not be accounted. a minimum long term stress strength can be determined. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .Minimum long term strength y y Minimum strength of glass is related to KIO.

Applied stress ‡ Gradual enlargement of cracks throughout the life of structure reduces the strength ‡ For each period of loading the strength is assessed by the design crack size and stress for that period.CRACK SIZE DESIGN ‡ Assumption ± design cracks are located at all critical points in the structure. regions of maximum tension .g. e.. ‡ Two components are required to evaluate strength of glass : 1. Critical crack size 2. no crack growth will occur ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .weakest part of the member coincides with the location of the highest stresses. ‡ If KI (at start) < KIO.

2 MPa.m1/2) 16 (ranges from 12 to 20.23 MPa.0025 m/s (ranges from 3*10-5 to . for 100% relative humidity) 0.75 MPa.18 to 0. Material Constants y The four material properties required for crack size design: a) b) c) d) KIC KIO n vO ± ± ± ± Critical Stress Intensity Factor Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Subcritical crack growth constant Crack growth velocity KIC KIO n vO = = = = 0.MATERIAL & DESIGN CONSTANTS USED IN CRACK SIZE DESIGN 1.m1/2 (for soda-lime silica glass) 0.02 m/s) ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .m1/2 (ranges from 0.

2. Weibull Distribution ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . but ample experimental data on short term strength of glass can be reinterpreted for this. y Probabilistic glass strength data is generally presented using Weibull Distribution. Design Constants a) Initial Crack Size y To begin we must have an initial design crack size y Typical crack size at start of life is scarce.

Incorporated at the start of the design to allow for events which occur independently of the load history.b) Event Crack Size o o Possible random events must be taken into account. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

This enables us to establish a design crack history. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .CRACK SIZE AND LIMIT STATE DESIGN y Every CSD must begin with an anticipated design stress history. Example stress history Design Crack Size History y CSD has to be well placed in a LSD framework.

The generic requirement of design in LSD theory can be given as : ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

y For a given crack size and applied stress. it is the stress intensity factor which determines whether failure will occur.KIC . y Failure criterion throughout the member life remains constant being critical stress intensity factor. y Most rational choice for S is KIC y Design stress intensity factor KI *= Y * (ša*)1/2 ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

Stress intensity factor based design ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . yOnce an acceptable failure risk for whole life of the structure is determined a statically acceptable initial crack size is defined. Increased certainty in design y For structural glass long term strength should be considered y Thus designing become more complex by making use of probabilities & judgment. yUsing crack size design only one probabilistic calculation is required. yAll subsequent design is then based on this crack size.ADVANTAGES 1.

Thus eliminating the need for extensive breaking. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . the failure of a test glass piece of known size will become highly predictable and would simply confirm the KIC. Thermal method These methods allows to test glass without breaking them. Possible Reduction in material testing cost y y y y Since CSD based on crack size. Other possible material tests : 1.2. Acoustic Testing 2.

o Blades are connected by 40mm diameter stainless steel pins to T-shaped brackets which in turn support the glass panels forming the canopy roof. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .CASE STUDY y YURAKUCHO CANOPY o Designed by Rafael Vinoly architects in Japan.8m wide stairwell leading to the Yurakucho underground station. o The supporting structure comprises cantilevered beams each made up of 4 component beams pinned at their middle and end points to form an arch. o These component beams are made up from both laminated glass and acrylic blades that reduce in number from 4 blades at the base of the cantilever beam to 1 blade at the tip. o Span ± 10m o Canopy shelters an 8m x 4.

o o o o At the base of the canopy V-shaped stainless steel brackets connect each cantilever to a horizontal beam running the full width of the canopy. Canopy was designed for hurricane and wind pressures of 5KN/m2. In a 19mm thick glass sheet with 72mm diameter hole was capable of transmitting forces of up to 120KN through connection. Design anticipated a maximum shear force of 12KN on each individual glass element joint. Connections ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .



Detail of glass blade connection ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .



ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . With the introduction of CSD in the framework of LSD it is easy to design structures of glass to a low occurrence probability strength. Thus the material loss due to experimental studies and the use of several probabilities for designing is eliminated. For this to be incorporated into the current limit state design procedure. the general aspect of allowable stress need to be transformed to the newly incorporated stress intensity factor Crack size and related studies were done in due regard to the strength properties of the glass.CONCLUSION ‡ y y y y Conventional use of glass has changed from its aesthetic appearance to glass as a structural material.

CRC Press. Mark Porter. 1995  http://www. Anderson T. 1999  ³Fracture Mechanics ± Fundamentals and Applications´. Jofeh. London.. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . 2001  ³Structural Use of Glass in Buildings´. Florida.REFERENCES  Aspects of Structural Design with Glass´. C. 2nd Edition. The Institution of Structural Engineers. Oxford

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