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Glass was used only for windows and other aesthetic purposes. Due to its cheap cost and transparent property glass is more preferred by the designers to obtain a fully transparent structure. Nowadays instead of glass being supported on metal beams and columns it is used as a structural member. Glass is isotropic, inorganic, visco-elastic material without lattice structure. Typical composition 

Silica SiO2 Lime CaO Soda Na2O

70 ± 74% 5 ± 12% 12 ± 16%


Material properties: ‚ High durability ‚ Resistance to  water percolation  corrosion  salt water  carbonated water  strong acids  organic solvents  ultra-violet radiation Glass property
Density, Modulus of elasticity Shear modulus , G Poisons ratio Coefficient of thermal expansion, T Thermal conductivity , Compressive strength Tensile strength

2500 70,000 30,000 0.23 7.7-8.8x10-3 1.0 Up to 1000 10-100

Kg/m3 MPa MPa 1/K W/mK MPa MPa



BASIC CONCEPTS y The use of glass as beams has some similarities with steel. Strength properties of glass relevant to structural engineering can be explained by considering the cracks present on the surface. Steel has a allowable stress based on yield stress and it¶s a definite value. such a definite value is not available for glass. Glass has a no single minimum strength. y This similarity led some practicing engineers to adopt design methods for y y y y glass based on the approach used for steel. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . Manufacturers have charts with probabilities associated with different stresses.

y It does not deals with buckling of glass. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .FRACTURE AND OBSERVED STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS y Here we are considering the glass subjected to only tension. y Crack size design is based on the fracture mechanics of elastic materials. which is independent of stresses at which fracture occurs.

Relevant fracture mechanics y Griffith proposed the concept of fracture mechanics based on how the y y y y y y surface energy is distributed around the crack and the instant at which the failure occurs. KIC . General relationship between stress intensity factor. K I -used in fracture mechanics to more accurately predict the stress state near the tip of the crack. Later Irwin and others modified this to develop stress intensity factor. the applied stress normal to the crack( ) and the crack size(a) is given by: KI = Y (ša)1/2 Y-is a function of crack length and width(=0. KI. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .Critical stress intensity factor.75) Glass fails when KI tends to KIC.

Variability in the short term strength of the glass not only depends on its material but also in the cracks on the surface. Depends on the handling of the glass after production. orientation of glass sheet in production process and other factors. Distribution in cracks and their sizes are quite variable. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .Short term strength of glass y y y y Strength of glass under short term loading is not constant.

1.2% relative humidity. Soda lime glass in 0. Soda lime glass in Water. 290C 2.Crack growth y For a pre-existing crack. 250C 3. crack will grow if subjected to stress less than that required to reach KIC. Soda lime glass in Distilled Water. 290C Slow crack-growth speed data ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

Linear relationship which corresponds to the crack propagation relationship for glass in vacuum. so crack growth leads to failure of glass in fraction of seconds. it seems reasonable to solely rely on slow-crack growth of region I. For structural projects. y Region II-Transition zone for I & III.y Region I Depends on environment. y Region III. y n Idealization of experimental results ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . y Crack propagation in region II & III are high.

ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . This decrease in static strength with time is usually referred to as ³static fatigue´.Static fatigue y The duration for which a constant stress can be sustained by a piece of glass reduces as the stress increases. under the applied load. the stress intensity factor reaches the critical value and failure occurs. Variation in strength with duration of loading y Critical crack grows to such an extent that.

Cyclic Loading y y Cyclic loading at lower loads than the ultimate strength will still cause failure.Minimum long term strength y y Minimum strength of glass is related to KIO. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . In design additional cyclic loading effects need not be accounted. a minimum long term stress strength can be determined. rather than a unique minimum stress For known initial crack size .

no crack growth will occur ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . e. Applied stress ‡ Gradual enlargement of cracks throughout the life of structure reduces the strength ‡ For each period of loading the strength is assessed by the design crack size and stress for that period. Critical crack size 2.g.weakest part of the member coincides with the location of the highest stresses. regions of maximum tension .. ‡ If KI (at start) < KIO.CRACK SIZE DESIGN ‡ Assumption ± design cracks are located at all critical points in the structure. ‡ Two components are required to evaluate strength of glass : 1.

0025 m/s (ranges from 3*10-5 to .23 MPa.2 MPa.02 m/s) ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .m1/2 (ranges from 0. Material Constants y The four material properties required for crack size design: a) b) c) d) KIC KIO n vO ± ± ± ± Critical Stress Intensity Factor Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Subcritical crack growth constant Crack growth velocity KIC KIO n vO = = = = 0.m1/2 (for soda-lime silica glass) 0.18 to 0.m1/2) 16 (ranges from 12 to 20.75 MPa.MATERIAL & DESIGN CONSTANTS USED IN CRACK SIZE DESIGN 1. for 100% relative humidity) 0.

Design Constants a) Initial Crack Size y To begin we must have an initial design crack size y Typical crack size at start of life is scarce. Weibull Distribution ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .2. but ample experimental data on short term strength of glass can be reinterpreted for this. y Probabilistic glass strength data is generally presented using Weibull Distribution.

Incorporated at the start of the design to allow for events which occur independently of the load history. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .b) Event Crack Size o o Possible random events must be taken into account.

ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .CRACK SIZE AND LIMIT STATE DESIGN y Every CSD must begin with an anticipated design stress history. Example stress history Design Crack Size History y CSD has to be well placed in a LSD framework. This enables us to establish a design crack history.

The generic requirement of design in LSD theory can be given as : ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

KIC . y Failure criterion throughout the member life remains constant being critical stress intensity factor.y For a given crack size and applied stress. it is the stress intensity factor which determines whether failure will occur. y Most rational choice for S is KIC y Design stress intensity factor KI *= Y * (ša*)1/2 ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

Stress intensity factor based design ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

yUsing crack size design only one probabilistic calculation is required. Increased certainty in design y For structural glass long term strength should be considered y Thus designing become more complex by making use of probabilities & judgment.ADVANTAGES 1. yOnce an acceptable failure risk for whole life of the structure is determined a statically acceptable initial crack size is defined. yAll subsequent design is then based on this crack size. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .

2. Acoustic Testing 2. Thermal method These methods allows to test glass without breaking them. Possible Reduction in material testing cost y y y y Since CSD based on crack size. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . the failure of a test glass piece of known size will become highly predictable and would simply confirm the KIC. Thus eliminating the need for extensive breaking. Other possible material tests : 1.

o The supporting structure comprises cantilevered beams each made up of 4 component beams pinned at their middle and end points to form an arch.8m wide stairwell leading to the Yurakucho underground station. o These component beams are made up from both laminated glass and acrylic blades that reduce in number from 4 blades at the base of the cantilever beam to 1 blade at the tip. o Blades are connected by 40mm diameter stainless steel pins to T-shaped brackets which in turn support the glass panels forming the canopy roof. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .CASE STUDY y YURAKUCHO CANOPY o Designed by Rafael Vinoly architects in Japan. o Span ± 10m o Canopy shelters an 8m x 4.

Canopy was designed for hurricane and wind pressures of 5KN/m2. Design anticipated a maximum shear force of 12KN on each individual glass element joint. Connections ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . In a 19mm thick glass sheet with 72mm diameter hole was capable of transmitting forces of up to 120KN through connection.o o o o At the base of the canopy V-shaped stainless steel brackets connect each cantilever to a horizontal beam running the full width of the canopy.



Detail of glass blade connection ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .



the general aspect of allowable stress need to be transformed to the newly incorporated stress intensity factor Crack size and related studies were done in due regard to the strength properties of the glass.CONCLUSION ‡ y y y y Conventional use of glass has changed from its aesthetic appearance to glass as a structural material. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS . For this to be incorporated into the current limit state design procedure. Thus the material loss due to experimental studies and the use of several probabilities for designing is eliminated. With the introduction of CSD in the framework of LSD it is easy to design structures of glass to a low occurrence probability strength.

Anderson T. ASPECTS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN WITH GLASS .. Dr.istructe. Oxford The Institution of Structural Engineers. C. Jofeh.REFERENCES  Aspects of Structural Design with Glass´.books. Mark Porter. CRC Press. 2001  ³Structural Use of Glass in Buildings´. 2nd Edition. 1999  ³Fracture Mechanics ± Fundamentals and Applications´. 1995  http://www.. Florida.

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