You are on page 1of 27

RISHABH KALPATI

"As much as 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools." Kaoru Ishikawa

What are the Basic Seven Tools of Quality?


Fishbone Diagrams Histograms Pareto Analysis Flowcharts Scatter Plots Run Charts Control Charts

ISHIKAWA
He urged managers to resist becoming content with merely improving a product's quality, insisting that quality improvement can always go one step further. His notion of company-wide quality control called for continued customer service. This meant that a customer would continue receiving service even after receiving the product. This service would extend across the company itself in all levels of management, and even beyond the company to the everyday lives of those involved. According to Ishikawa, quality improvement is a continuous process, and it can always be taken one step further.

ISHIKAWA
With the use of, the user can see all possible causes of a result, and hopefully find the root of process imperfections. By pinpointing root problems, this diagram provides quality improvement from the "bottom up." Dr. W. Edwards Deming --one of Isikawa's colleagues -- adopted this diagram and used it to teach Total Quality Control in Japan as early as World War II. Both Ishikawa and Deming use this diagram as one the first tools in the quality management process.

Additionally, Ishikawa explored the concept of quality circles-- a Japanese philosophy which he drew from obscurity into world wide acceptance. .Ishikawa believed in the importance of support and leadership from top level management. He continually urged top level executives to take quality control courses, knowing that without the support of the management, these programs would ultimately fail. He stressed that it would take firm commitment from the entire hierarchy of employees to reach the company's potential for success. Another area of quality improvement that Ishikawa emphasized is quality throughout a product's life cycle -- not just during production. Although he believed strongly in creating standards, he felt that standards were like continuous quality improvement programs -- they too should be constantly evaluated and changed. Standards are not the ultimate source of decision making; customer satisfaction is. He wanted managers to consistently meet consumer needs; from these needs, all other decisions should stem.

Ishikawa expanded Deming's four steps into the following six: Determine goals and targets. Determine methods of reaching goals. Engage in education and training. Implement work. Check the effects of implementation. Take appropriate action.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

What is it?
An analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and their respective causes Developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa of Japan in 1943 and is sometimes referred to as an Ishikawa Diagram or a Fishbone Diagram because of its shape

> WHY IMPLEMENT THIS? >

Why implement this?


It helps determine the root causes of a problem using a structured approach. It encourages group participation and utilizes group knowledge of the process. It uses an orderly, easy-toread format to diagram cause-and-effect. relationships It indicates possible causes of variation in a process.

Why implement this?


It increases knowledge of the process by helping everyone to learn more about the factors at work and how they relate. It identifies areas where data should be collected for further study.
> EXAMPLE OF A BUSINESS PROCESS >

Submission of Billing to Client


Receive update of newly issued billings Locate included clients file folders

File folders
Find and update clients billing statements

Locate included clients Buyers Information Sheet

Buyers Information Sheet

Call each client on update

Send Billing Statements

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 1 >

STEP 1:
Identify and clearly define the outcome or EFFECT to be analyzed.
Decide on the effect to be examined. An effect may be positive (an objective) or negative (a problem), depending upon the issue that is being discussed.
>POSITIVE pride and ownership over productive areas upbeat atmosphere that encourages the participation of the group > NEGATIVE justifying why the problem occurred and placing blame easier for a team to focus on what causes a problem than what causes an excellent outcome concentrate on things that can go wrong may foster a more relaxed atmosphere which sometimes enhances group participation

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 2 >

STEP 2:
Draw the SPINE and create the EFFECT box.
Draw a horizontal arrow pointing to the right. This is the spine. To the right of the arrow, write a brief description of the effect or outcome which results from the process. Draw a box around the description of the effect.

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1 & 2 >

Spine

Inaccurate Submission of Billing to Client

Effect Box

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 3 >

STEP 3:
Identify the main CAUSES contributing to the effect being studied.
Establish main causes, or categories, under Write the main categories your team has which other possible of the effect box. selected to the left causes will be listed. Draw some above andMaterials, spine. 3Ms and P Methods, below the Machinery, and People Draw a box around each category label 4Ps Policies, Procedures, form a and use a diagonal line to People, and Plant branch from the box to the spine. Environment

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2 & 3 >

Methods

People

Inaccurate Submission of Billing to Client

Main Causes

Machinery

Materials

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 4 >

STEP 4:
For each major branch, identify other specific factors which may be the CAUSES of the EFFECT.
Identify as many factors or causes possible and attach them as subbranches of the major branches. Fill in detail for each cause.
> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2, 3 & 4 >

Methods
Erroneous sorting of billing statements

People
People fail to inform client thru call/e-mail

Invalid list of updates

Ignorance

Phone line disconnected

Erroneous Information Unreliable in BIS mail system

Inaccurate Submission of Billing to Client


No file for record of billing statements in clients folders

Machinery

Materials

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 5 >

STEP 5:
Identify more detailed levels of causes and continue organizing them under related causes or categories.
FROM GIVEN EXAMPLE:
Q: Why is there an invalid list of updates? A: Because the data was mixed up. Q: Why was the data mixed up? A: There was a problem with the manual organization of the files. Q: Why is there a problem with the manual organization of the files? A: Because there are no back-up files and since it was manually prearranged, inaccuracy is inevitable.

You can do this by asking a series of WHY questions.

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 >

Methods
Mixed up data Inaccuracy in sorting data Invalid Manual file list of organization updates

People
Erroneous sorting of billing Poor statements training Inaccuracy In sorting data Mixed up data Ignorance Manual file organization Erroneous Information in BIS Inaccuracy in sorting data Mixed up data Unreliable mail system Manual file system Wrong phone number/ e-mail information

Inaccuracy in sorting data Erroneous info in BIS

Manual file organization

People fail to inform client thru call/e-mail No training Ignorance

Inaccurate Submission of Billing to Client

Poor training

Skipping paying monthly bills No money

Phone line disconnected

Inaccuracy in sorting Manual file and giving out mail organization

Assorted records of billing statements in clients folders Inaccuracy in sorting data Mixed up data Manual file organization

Machinery

Materials

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 6 >

STEP 6:
Analyze the diagram.
A thick causes items in one warrant Look for cluster ofcauses that repeatedly. It helps identifythat appear area may indicate represent root These may a need for further study. further investigation. causes. A main what chart to determine specific Look a pareto youhaving only a few each Use for category can measure in the causes may indicate a need for further cause soto focus on first. the effects of cause you can quantify identification of make. any changes you causes.your diagram, See the balance of have only a few If several major branches Most importantly, identify and circle the checking for comparable levels of sub-branches, you may need to combine causes thatmostcan take action on. detail under a single category. for you of the categories. them

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , completed >

Methods
Mixed up data Inaccuracy in sorting data Invalid Manualfile list of Manual file organization updates organization

People

Inaccuracy in sorting data

Erroneous Wrong phone number/ sorting e-mail information Erroneous info Poor Poor of billing in BIS training training statements People fail to inform Inaccuracy client thru In sorting call/e-mail No training No training data Mixed Ignorance up data Ignorance Manual file Manual file organization organization Erroneous Information in BIS Inaccuracy in sorting data Mixed up data Unreliable mail system
Manual filefile system Manual system

Manual file Manual file organization organization

Inaccurate Submission of Billing to Client

Poor Poor training

Skipping paying monthly bills No money

training

Phone line disconnected

Inaccuracy in sorting and giving out mail

Manual file Manual file organization organization

Assorted records of billing statements in clients folders Inaccuracy in sorting data Mixed up data Manual Manual file file organization organization

Machinery

Materials

> RECOMMENDATIONS from completed CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM >

Poor/No Training -> Give tutorials and seminars to new and old employees alike. The level of detail is well-balanced. Have people check employees The causes poor/no training and performances every once in a while. manual file organization/system are Manual File System -> Have a computerrepeated several times. maintain the based information system to organization. It stated above you backThese causes will not only give are the up files but make the system work faster. ones that should be attended to and Make sure it is maintained and updated at given action on ASAP. all times.

RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS: ANALYSIS

THANK YOU