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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ROBOTICS & APPLICATIONS

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WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ?


Artificial Intelligence is a branch of
Science which deals with helping machines

find solutions to complex problems in a


more human-like fashion. It is basically the ability of a machine to think for itself.

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Why do we need artificial intelligence?


Artificial intelligence dramatically reduces or eliminates the risk to humans in many applications. They can easily adapt to the situations in any environment where humans cannot withstand

. Reliability and precision


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THE CRITERIA FOR ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS :


Functional
Designable Able to manufacture Marketable

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HISTORY OF AI
5th century BC Aristotle invents syllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system. 1950 - 1960:-

The first working AI programs were


written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I

machine of the University of Manchester


(UK)
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1960 1970 :Ted Shortliffe demonstrated the power of rule-based systems for knowledge representation and inference in medical diagnosis and therapy in what is sometimes called the first expert system. Hans Moravec developed the first computer-controlled vehicle
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Historical Attempt to create human like robots


The original story, published by Mary Shelley, in 1818,

describes the attempt


of a true scientist, Victor Frankenstein, to create life.
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1980s ONWARDS UNTIL NOW


In the 1980s, neural networks became

widely used with the back propagation


algorithm, first described by Paul John Werbos A neural network brain equipped onto a robot will allow the robot to sample its world at random.
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Latest advancements in robots with artificial intelligence


Robots have been programmed to work in

nursing homes.
They function as medicine aides who deliver medication and even instruct and supervise the patient who takes the pills. Ethical concern within the artificial intelligence community is war technology.
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Three laws of robotics:


1. A robot may not injure or harm a human being or allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must follow the instructions given to it by a human being without violating Rule 1

3. A robot must protect itself as long as


such protection does not violate Rules 1
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and 2.

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ROBOTICS
Some robots can interact socially. Kismet, a robot at M.I.T's Artificial Intelligence Lab, recognizes human body language and voice inflection and

responds appropriately.

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Autonomous Robots
Autonomous robots can act on their own, independent of any controller. The basic idea is to program the robot to respond a certain way to outside stimuli. Robots might also use microphones and smell sensors to analyze the world around them.
The autonomous Urbie is designed for various urban operations, including military reconnaissance and Templates Powerpointrescue operations.

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More advanced robots use stereo vision to see the world around them.

Two cameras give these robots


depth perception, and image-

recognition software gives them the


ability to locate and classify various objects and can take the decisions depending on them.
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Who uses Artificial Intelligence now and how ?


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Medicine:
NEW BLOOD TEST SPOTS CANCER: In one of the biggest advances in cancer research in years, scientists have developed a blood test that can detect cancer with a greater than 90%

accuracy.
'All that's needed is a single drop of blood 'The computer does the rest.

performing delicate brain surgery more accurately than by traditional surgical


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Artificial nose:
E-nose analyses gas samples by passing the gas over an array of electrodes coated with different conducting polymers. Each electrode reacts to particular substance by

changing its electrical resistance in a


characteristic way. Combining the signals from all the electrodes gives a 'smell-print' of the chemicals in the mixture
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Military:
The American military is working on a new generation of soldier, far different from the army it has. WHY ?

They are not afraid.


They don't forget their orders.

They don't care if the guy next to


them has just been shot
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A $127 billion project called FUTURE COMBAT SYSTEMS is the biggest military contract in American history. A 21st-century fighting force

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Space exploration :
Machine is the first to enter space that made many possibilities A.I. was used in the investigation of Mars and other planets

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And more ?

GAME AI NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING CYBORGS EXPERT SYSTEMS SPEECH RECOGNITION UNDERSTANDING NATURAL LANGUAGE
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UPHILLS TO AI :
A 100% accurate algorithm is to be developed. Emotion processing algorithms are difficult to develop.

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FEW LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN MIND vs AI :


Heavy calculations and precision Face recognition: Cannot be passed on to another person by explanation Naming of colours: Based on learning, not on absolute standards. ROBOTS are not emotional
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CONCLUSION:
We can expect intelligent machines which are beyond human capabilities in all fields. Human life span can be increased.

Intelligent co-efficient of machines is directly proportional to the intelligence of its

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