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Management

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT

Scientific Management

Taylors scientific management sought efficiency in job performance. Administrative principles describe managerial duties and practices. Webers bureaucratic organization is supposed to be efficient and fair.

Classical Contributions
Classical approach
The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists.
Scientific management theorists Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt General administrative theorists Henri R. Fayol and Max Weber
Emphasis is on: a. rationality b. making organizations and workers as efficient as possible.

Scientific Management
Scientific Management: The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency.
Frederick W. Taylor
The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the one best way for a job to be done Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way. (specialization)

Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor
To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans.
Separated managerial work from operative work. Also known as Taylorism, an adaption study in globalization. Taylors model being utilized by firms around the world.

Taylors Four Principles of Management


1. Develop a science for each jobrules of motion, standard work tools, proper work conditions. 2. Hire workers with the right abilities for the job. 3. Train and motivate workers to do their jobs according to the science.

4. Support workers by planning and assisting their work by the job science.

Elements of Scientific Management: The techniques which Taylor regarded as its essential elements or features are:
Scientific Task and Rate-setting, work improvement, etc. Planning the Task. Vocational Selection and Training Standardization (of working conditions, material equipment etc.) Specialization Mental Revolution.

The positive view of Principles of scientific management described by Taylor


Science, not the rule of thumb; Harmony, not discord; Co-operation, not individualism; Maximum output in place of restricted output. Equal division of responsibility The development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity.

Mental revolution

Problems of Scientific Management


Managers often implemented only the increased output side of Taylors plan.

They did not allow workers to share in increased output. Specialized jobs became very boring, dull. Workers ended up distrusting Scientific Management.

Workers could purposely under-perform Management responded with increased use of machines.

Criticism from Employers


Huge investment required Sudden change may disturb existing working arrangements Unsuitable to small units Benefits after a long period Huge overhead expenses required

Criticism from Workers and Trade Unions


Heavy burden on workers Reduces initiative among workers Possibility of unemployment Exploitation of workers Possible adverse effects on workers unity

Benefits / Advantages of Scientific Management 1. Application and use of scientific methods. 2. Wide scope for specialization and accurate planning. 3. Minimum wastages of materials, time and money. 4. Cordial relations between workers and management. 5. Benefits to workers (higher wages and less burden of work), management (cost reduction, better quality productions) and consumers (superior goods at lower prices)

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth


refined Taylors methods and suggested 1. Breaking down each action into individual components. 2. Find better ways to perform the action. 3. Reorganize each action to be more efficient. 4. Eliminate wasteful activities.to be more productive. Taylor: What is a fair days work for a fair day wages? Gilbreth: How can a fair days work be utilised in the most productive manner?

How managers today apply scientific management?

Managers analyze basic work task that must be performed


- use time-and-motion study to eliminate wasted motions. - hire best-qualified workers for a job. - designed incentive systems based on output.

General Administrative Theory


Henri Fayol (France)
All Industrial activities classified:
Technical (relating to production) Commercial (buying, selling & exchange) Financial (search of Capital and its optimum use) Security (of persons & property) Accounting (recording transactions) Managerial (Planning, Organising, Commanding, Coordinating & Controlling)

Fayol divided his approach of studying management into:


Managerial Qualities & Training Five Elements of Management (Foyal): Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or universal principles of management practice

Managerial Qualities
Physical Qualities (appearance, health, etc) Mental qualities (judgement, adaptability, etc) Moral Qualities (firmness, initiative, loyalty, etc) Educational Qualities (general acquaintance with background of management) Technical Qualities (related to functions to be performed) Experience (arising from work itself)

Five Elements of Management (Foyal):

To FORECAST to PLAN To ORGANISE To COMMAND To COORDINATE To CONTROL

Henri Fayols 14 Principles of Management


1. Division of Work
- Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient.

2. Authority - Managers must be able to give orders, and authority gives them this right. 3. Unity of command - Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. 4. Unity of direction
- Organization have single plan of action to guide managers and workers.

Fayols Fourteen Principles of Management


5. Discipline - employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. 6. Subordination - of individual interest to the general interest. 7. Remuneration - workers must be paid a fair wage for their service.
8. Centralization

- the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision makings.

Fayols Fourteen Principles of Management


9. Scalar chain - line of authority from top management to lowest rank 10. Order - people and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11. Equity - managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

12. Stability of tenure of personnel - orderly personnel planning - human resource management.

Fayols Fourteen Principles of Management


13. Initiative - employees allowed to originate and carry out plans that will exert high levels of effort. 14. Espirit de corps - promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organizations

Basis Meaning

Unity of command It implies that a sub-ordinate should receive orders & instructions from only one boss. It is related to the functioning of personnels.

Unity of direction It means one head, one plan for a group of activities having similar objectives. It is related to the functioning of departments, or organization as a whole. It is necessary for sound organization.

Nature

Necessity

It is necessary for fixing responsibility of each subordinates. It avoids conflicts, confusion & chaos. It leads to better superior subordinate relationship.

Advantage

It avoids duplication of efforts and wastage of resources. It leads to smooth running of the enterprise.

Result

Though they are different from one other they are dependent on each other. Unity of direction is a prerequisite for unity of command.

General Administrative Theories


How managers today apply GMT?
Functional view of the managers job Fayol Fayol 14 principle framework for current management concepts.
FEATURES OF PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT 1. Principles of Management are Universal 2. Principles of Management are Flexible 3. Principles of Management have a Cause & Effect Relationship 4. Principles of Management - Aims at Influencing Human Behavior 5. Principles of Management are of Equal Importance

Taylorism vs Fayolism
Both attempted to overcome managerial problems in a systematic manner Both developed some principles which can be applied to solving managerial problems Both emphasized that management actions can be effective if they are based on sound management principles Both expressed that managerial qualities can be acquired through training and development Both emphasized harmonious relationship between management and workers to achieve organizational objectives Both have advocated division of labour and specialisation

Basis
Human aspect

Taylor
Taylor disregards human elements and there is more stress on improving men, materials and methods

Fayol
Fayol pays due regards on human element. E.g. Principle of initiative, Espirit De Corps and Equity recognizes a need for human relations

Status

Father of scientific management

Father of management principles


Stressed on general administration

Efficiency & administration

Stressed on efficiency

Approach

It has micro-approach because it is restricted to factory only

It has macro-approach and discuses general principles of management which are applicable in every field of management.
These are applicable in all kinds of organization regarding their management affairs Administrative management

Scope of principles

These principles are restricted to production activities

Achievement

Scientific management

Taylorism Employees performance vs Management performance Taylors Scientific Management focuses more on the performance of the worker Approach Taylor followed bottom-upward approach, as he mainly focused on shop and factory management Applicability Taylors principles and techniques have narrow applicability. They are focussed on production units. Nature Taylors techniques are more specific and rigid Popularity Taylor is popularly known as the father of Scientific management Mechanistic vs Humanistic approach: Taylors approach is mechanistic as he mainly emphasizes increase in productivity and efficiency

Fayolism Fayols principles of management place more emphasis on the performance of management Fayol followed top-down approach as his main focus was on functions and qualities of managers Fayol put forth general principles of management which can be applied to any type of organization or activity

Fayols techniques are general and flexible in nature

Fayol is popularly known as the father of Functional Management Fayols approach is humanistic as he considers human elements like equity, stability of tenure, unity etc.

Individual vs Group performance Taylors scientific management gives more importance Fayols functional management gives more stress on to the individual performance group performance of managers Functional foremanship vs Principle of Unity of Command Taylor introduced the concept of functional Fayol strongly advocates the principle of Unity of foremanship, whereby workers have to report to Command i.e., one subordinate should report to only several functional heads one superior.

Planning
Planning is fundamental function of management preceding all other functions of management . To Govern is to foresee. Process through which a manager looks into the future. Though future is uncertain, planning helps instead of leaving things to chance. It involves developing goals, strategies, policies, procedures and programmes

Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it,


when to do it and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go. Koontz and
ODonnell

Planning is a continuous process of making present


entrepreneurial decisions systematically, with best possible knowledge of their futurity and organising systematically the efforts needed to carry out these decisions and measuring the results of these decisions against the expectations through organised, systematic feedback. George Terry

Planning
Is goal-oriented Is future-oriented Is the primary function Is an intellectual process Is all-pervasive Is both short range and long range Is Continuous Is actionable Is flexible Is an integrated system

ESSENTIALS OF SOUND PLANNING


Plan should be easy to understand and execute Must be based on clear-cut objectives Must be suitable to the needs of an organization Must be comprehensive and integrated Must be flexible Should be based on rational forecast Should be consistent with the environment Must be realistic and not idealistic Must be efficient and economical Should be time bound Must win employees favour and confidence

NEED & IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING:


Planning is complimentary to all management functions It helps management to face the future with confidence It focuses its attention on objectives It leads to optimum utilization of resources It increases overall efficiency It provides premises for effective control It guides decision making It facilitates coordination It helps in performance evaluation It makes provisions for contingencies

LIMITATIONS OF PLANNING:
Egoistic planning Wastage of resources Expensive Limits individual freedom Not an end Dynamic environment Non-availability of authentic and accurate data Unsuitable for small units Time consuming Delayed action due to deliberation Rapidly changing business environment / unrealistic targets

COMPONENTS OF PLANNING:
Standing Plans:
Mission: Objectives: Strategies: Policies: Procedures: Rules:

Single use plans:


Programmes Budget Schedule Forecast Project

DECISION-MAKING
Decision-making is a conscious human process involving
both individual and social phenomenon, based upon factual and value premises, which concludes with a choice of one behavioural activity from among two or more alternatives with the intention of moving towards some desired state of

Shull Decision-making is the selection based on some criteria from two or more possible alternatives George Terry

affairs.

PROCESS OF DECISION-MAKING
Identification of a problem Diagnosing the problem Analysis of the problem Collecting information Identifying alternate courses of action Evaluation of alternatives Choice of best alternative Conversion of decision into action Progressive review

ORGANISATION
Organising involves grouping of activities necessary to
accomplish goals and plans, the assignment of these activities to the appropriate departments and the provisions for authority delegation and coordination. Koontz and

ODonnell Organising is the process of identifying and grouping the


work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling the people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives. Louis A Allen

The term organisation is used in two senses:


Organisation as a process Organisation as a structure

The Logic of Organizing Process


1. Establishing enterprise objectives 2. Formulating supporting objectives, policies and plans 3. Identifying and classifying the activities necessary to accomplish these objectives 4. Grouping these activities in the light of the human and material resources available and the best way, under the circumstances, of using them 5. Delegating to the head of each group the authority necessary to perform the activities 6. Tying the groups together horizontally and vertically, through authority relationships and information flows
Enterprise Objectives Supporting objectives, policies & plans Identification & classification of required activities Grouping of activities in light of resources and situations Delegation of authority
Horizontal & vertical coordination of authority & information relationships

Nature & Characteristics of Organisation


Organizing is the basic function of management Organizing is always related to objectives Organizing is an entity Organizing as a group of people Organizing as a process Organizing as a structure

Importance of Organisation
Organization promotes specialization and division of labour It avoids ommissions, overlapping and duplication of efforts It clarifies authority-responsibility relationships It facilitates staffing It facilitates coordination It establishes communication links It increases efficiency of management

Importance of Organisation (contd.)


It facilitates management by exception Effective location of responsibility Quick achievement of organizational goals Quick decision making Provides facility for training, testing and development Prevents growth of intrigues and corruption

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION
1. Principle of delegation of authority

2. Principle of coordination
3. Principle of continuity

4. Principle of definition
5. Principle of explanation

6. Principle of equilibrium balance

7. Principle of flexibility
8. Principle of unity of objectives 9. Principle of responsibility 10. Principle of specialization

11. Principle of span of control

12. Principle of scalar chain


13. Principle of simplicity and homogeneity

14. Principle of unity of command


15. Principle of unity of direction

16. Principle of uniformity

17. Principle of efficiency


18. Principle of leadership

19. Principle of exception


20. Principle of joint decision

Authority
Authority may be defined as the power to make decisions which guide the actions of another..
Characteristics of Authority: a) Authority is a legitimate right to command & control subordinates b) Authority is granted to achieve the cherished goals of the enterprise c) Authority is a right to direct others to get things done d) Authority is a commanding force binding individuals together e) Authority is delegated downwards.

Responsibility
Responsibility may be defined as the obligation of a subordinate to whom a duty has been assigned to perform.

Characteristics of Responsibility:
a) Responsibility is to assign duty to human beings only. b) Responsibility is the result of duty assigned to a human being c) Responsibility is the obligation to complete the assigned task d) Responsibility can never be delegated e) Responsibility always flows upward from juniors to seniors

Relationship between Authority and Responsibility a) Parity in authority and responsibility b) Authority and responsibility flow in opposite direction c) Responsibility cannot be delegated

Elements of Organisation
Defining responsibility Delegating Authority, and Establishing relationships between authority and responsibility Three significant elements of organising: 1. Line authority 2. Staff authority 3. Functional authority

LINE AUTHORITY
Line authority flows down the chain of command.

STAFF AUTHORITY
Staff authority is the right to advise or counsel those with line authority.

Functional Authority
Functional authority of staff departments to control the activities of other departments.

Line and Staff

Formal Structure

Informal Structure
Informal Structure
Unofficial but important working relationships between members.

Types of Internal Organisation


1. Formal Organisation 2. Informal Organisation
Features of Formal Organisation
It is the result of deliberate managerial planning It is based on the principle of division of labour and specialisation

Features of Informal Organisation


Informal organisations do not appear on the formal chart of the enterprise

Informal organisations are based on personal attitudes, likes and dislikes, understanding, customs, traditions, etc. It is based on the activities to be performed Informal organization exists at all levels of and not on the individuals who perform such organization from top to bottom activities It is formally proclaimed by the top Although, there is no specific channel of management and hence, shown on the communication, informal channel is much organization charts more powerful than formal channel It sets up the boundaries and specific part of actions, which must be strictly followed.

Informal Structure
Informal Structures have good and bad points
Social network analysis identifies communication relationships Good points include problem solving, support, friendship and fill gaps in the formal structure Bad points include rumors, inaccurate information and resistance to change

Organizational Charts
What You Can Learn from an Organization Chart
Division of work Supervisory relationships Span of control Communication channels Major subunits Staff positions Levels of management Positions and titles show work responsibilities.
Lines between positions show who reports to whom in the chain of command. The number of persons reporting to a supervisor. Lines between positions show routes for formal communication flows. Which job titles are grouped together in work units, departments, or divisions. Staff specialists that support other positions and parts of the organization. The number of management layers from top to bottom.

Common Types of Structures


Functional structures group together people using similar skills Divisional structures group together people by products, customers or locations Matrix structures combine the functional and divisional structures Team structures use many permanent and temporary teams Network structures extensively use strategic alliances and outsourcing

Departmentation enables an organization to avail the benefits of specialisation. When every department looks after one major function, expertise is developed and efficiency of operation increases. Expansion Fixation of responsibilities Appraisal Administrative control

Departmentalization
Functional departmentation: Product departmentation Territorial departmentation Customer departmentation Process or equipment departmentation Matrix organisation

COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

Functional Structures

Common functional structure

Functional Organisation grouping

ADVANTAGES
Is logical reflection of functions Maintains power & prestige of major functions Follows principle of occupational specialization Simplifies training Furnishes means for tight control at the top

DISADVANTAGES
Deemphasis of overall company objectives Overspecializes and narrows viewpoints of key personnel Reduces coordination between functions Responsibility for profits is at the top only Slow adaptation to changes in environment Limits development of general managers

Divisional Structures
Common divisional structures

Product Orgnisation grouping


ADVANTAGES Places attention and effort on product line DISADVANTAGES Requires more persons with general managerial abilities Facilitates use of specialized capital, facilities, skills Tends to make maintenance of and knowledge economical central services difficult Permits growth and diversity of products and Presents Increased problem of top services management control Improves coordination of functional activities Places responsibility for profits at the division level
Furnishes measurable training ground for general managers

Territorial or Geographic Orgnisation grouping


ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Places responsibility at lower level Requires more persons with general managerial abilities Places emphasis on local markets and problems Improves coordination in the region Takes advantage of economies of local operations Better face-to-face communication with local interests Tends to make maintenance of economical central services difficult and may require services such as personnel or purchasis at the regional level Increases problem of top management control

Furnishes measurable training ground for general managers

Customer Departmentation
ADVANTAGES Encourages concentration of customer needs Gives customers a feeling that they have an understanding supplier Develops expertise in customer area DISADVANTAGES May be difficult to coordinate operations between competing customer demands Requires managers and staff with expertise in customers problems Customer groups may not always be clearly defined

Process Orgnisation grouping


ADVANTAGES Achieves economic advantage Uses specialized technology Utilizes special skills DISADVANTAGES Coordination of departments is difficult Responsibility for profit is at the top Is unsuitable for developing general managers

Matrix Structures
Matrix Structures combine functional and divisional structures
uses permanent cross functional teams to try to gain the advantages of both the functional and divisional approaches

Matrix Structures

Matrix Orgnisation
ADVANTAGES Is oriented towards end results Professional identification is maintained Pinpoints product-profit responsibility DISADVANTAGES Conflict in organization authority exists Possibility of disunity of command exists Requires manager effective in human relations

Team Structures
Team Structures
Make use of permanent and temporary cross functional teams Improved problem solving and project management

COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

Team Structures
Team structure example

COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

Team Structures
Possible advantages of Team structures
Team assignments improve communication, cooperation, and decision-making. Team members get to know each other as persons, not just job titles. Team memberships boost morale, and increase enthusiasm and task involvement.

MOTIVATION

The psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behavior The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways

Motivation

Defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine:


1) direction of behavior in an organization; 2) the effort or how hard people work; 3) the persistence displayed in meeting goals.

Intrinsic Motivation: behavior performed for its own sake.

Motivation comes from performing the work.

Extrinsic Motivation: behavior performed to acquire rewards.

Motivation source is the consequence of an action.

Outcomes & Inputs

Regardless of the source of motivation, people seek outcomes.

Outcome: anything a person gets from a job.


Examples include pay, autonomy, accomplishment.

Organizations hire workers to obtain inputs:

Input: anything a person contributes to their job.


Examples include skills, knowledge, work behavior.

Managers thus use outcomes to motivate workers to provide inputs.

Need -> Motive -> Behaviour -> Consequence -> Satisfaction / Dissatisfaction

Motivation Equation
Inputs from Organizational members Outcomes received by members Pay Job Security Benefits Vacation Autonomy Responsibility

Performance

Time Effort Education Experience Skills Knowledge Work Behav.

Contribute to organization efficiency, effectiveness and attain goals

Hierarchy of Needs Theory:


Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physiological. Safety. Social. Esteem. Self-actualization.

Hierarchy of Needs Theory


SelfActualization
Self-Development & Realisation. Offer training, creativity, promotions, employee control over jobs

Self-esteem, recognition, status. Offer recognition, status, challenges, merit pay, employee participation in making decisions Sense of belonging, love Offer interaction with others, participation in workgroup, good relations with supervisors Security, protection Offer safe working conditions, job security, health and retirement benefits

Esteem
Social

Safety

Hunger, thirst..Offer adequate ventilation, heat, water, base pay

Physiological

Hierarchy of Needs Need Level Description Examples


SelfActualization Esteem

Realize ones full potential Feel good about oneself

Use abilities to the fullest Promotions & recognition

Belongingness

Social interaction, love


Security, stability Food, water, shelter

Interpersonal relations, parties


Job security, health insurance Basic pay level to buy items

Safety

Physiological

Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher needs are addressed.

Maslow then categorized these 5 needs into lower-order needs and higher-order needs. Lower-order needs are needs that are satisfied externally: physiological and safety needs. Higher-order needs are needs that are satisfied internally (within the person): social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor:


McGregor concluded that a managers view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward subordinates according to these assumptions:

Theory X and Theory Y:


Theory X Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it; Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals; Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
Theory Y Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play; Humans donot dislike work given meaningful work, they will try hard to achieve. Satisfied People will exercise selfdirection and self-control if they are committed to the objectives; External control & threat of punishment are not the only means to bring about efforts. Commitment depends on rewards associated with achievement. Most important reward being those that satisfy need of self-respect & personal improvement. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility; The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Two-factor Theory proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factorsHygiene and Motivating
Extrinsic Factor(Hygiene) is the payoff, such as money a person receives from others for doing a particular task

Intrinsic Factor (Motivating) is the satisfaction, such as the feeling of accomplishment, a person receives from performing the particular task itself

Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include factors such as: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary. Motivator factors include factors such as: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and growth.

Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors
Company policy and administration; Supervision; Relationship with supervisor; Work conditions; Salary; Relationship with peers; Personal life; Relationship with subordinates; Status; Security

Motivator Factors:
Achievement Recognition; Work itself; Responsibility; Advancement; Growth

McClellands Needs Theory


Acquired-Needs Theory states that three needs achievement, affiliation, and power - are major motives determining peoples behavior in the workplace Need for Achievement a basic human need that concerns issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties Need for Power basic human need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

Need for Affiliation basic human need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people

The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past. Characteristics: Tend to Set Moderately Difficult Goals and Make Moderately Risky Decisions Have a Preoccupation With Work Want Immediate, Specific Feedback on Their Performance Assume Personal Responsibility for Getting Things Done

The Need for Affiliation


The need for human companionship. Individuals with a high need for affiliation tend to want reassurance and approval from others and usually are genuinely concerned about others feelings. People with a high need for affiliation often work in jobs with a lot of interpersonal contact.

The Need for Power


The desire to control the resources in ones environment.
Degree of control a person desires over his / her situation Related to how people deal with failure and success.

Motivators: Fear of failure / Hope of Success People with a high need for power can be successful managers if three conditions are met:
They must seek power for the betterment of the organization rather than for their own interests They must have a fairly low need for affiliation (fulfilling a personal need for power may well alienate others in the workplace). They need plenty of self-control to curb their desire for power when it threatens to interfere with effective organizational or interpersonal relationships.

Some Motives & Motive Indicators


MOTIVE MEANING BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR

Persons dominated by this motive are generally Achievement


Concern for excellence, desire of the person to meet a particular standard of excellence Concern for establishing or maintaining warm and affectionate relations with others Active, Hardworking, Set high goals, take challenging tasks, derive pleasure in doing difficult things and look for quality. Self-set standards. Want close relationships with people and also establish emotional relationships. They join groups, invite people, develop attachments and feel depressed in case of separation of dear ones. Club membership, frequent social parties, organised friendship circles are indicators

Affiliation

Power

Desire to influence others and gain In positions where they can lead, influence or control control over others or to be others. They seek opportunities for leadership. superiors to others. Argumentative, always wanting to be the first, enjoying, giving directions to others. Desire to be helpful to others or to provide ones service to organisation nation or any external agent. Are good social workers. They enjoy helping others and look for opportunities where they can be of help. They join social service organisations and probably maintain good interpersonal relations.

Extension

MOTIVE

MEANING

BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR Persons dominated by this motive are generally

Need to dominate others and to demonstrate ones own strength, at times even physically Need to consult others Dependence before making any decision. This may arise out of insecurity. Independence Opposite of dependence, a desire to do things individually and to be ones own self.

Aggression

Are argumentative, talks loud, they may get into physical fights and want always to win or show their strength. Will always look for directions from others, cannot make any independent decisions, want to be protected by someone and lack initiative. Like to make decisions on their own without seeking anyones approval. They prefer to have freedom and dislike interference from outsiders including superiors. They may consult others, but do not seek approval. Express it by their frustration at lack of job security, economic security etc. They may grumble about the job, save money for the future etc. This is a very important need and if many employees have this as a high need, the organisation policies are worth looking at.

Security

Need to be secure about ones own living and to be sure one continues to have it.

MOTIVE

MEANING

BEHAVIOUR INDICATOR Persons dominated by this motive are generally

Status and Prestige

Desire to be respected and treated with deference specially by others in the social environment.

Would not violate social norms or would do so only when they get recognition positively. They run for offices, they like to show authoritarian tendencies when they work with others. They may be categorising people into status groups and interacting with them selectively and differentially. Work hard but lose their motivation completely if their work is not recognised immediately. They try to make their presence felt and strive to get attention. This is another basic need in all of us. Is always active, a hard worker and is constantly engaged in some activity. The opposite is passivity which is also a need to relax and not to be disturbed.

Recognition

Need to be recognised for ones accomplishment

Activity

Desire to be constantly doing things