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Managerial Accounting by James Jiambalvo

Chapter 9: Capital Budgeting Decisions Slides Prepared by: Scott Peterson Northern State University

Objectives
1. Define capital expenditure decisions and capital budgets. 2. Evaluate investment opportunities using the net present value approach. 3. Evaluate investment opportunities using the internal rate of return approach. 4. Calculate the depreciation tax shield, and explain why depreciation is important in investment analysis only because of income taxes.

Objectives

(continued)

5. Use the payback period and the accounting rate of return methods to evaluate investment opportunities. 6. Explain why managers may concentrate erroneously on the shortrun profitability of investments rather than their net present values.

Capital Budgeting Decisions

1. Capital Budgeting Decisions include the acquisition of long-lived assets. 2. Require that capital (company funds) be expended to acquire additional resources. 3. Also known as Capital Expenditure Decisions.

Capital Budgeting Decisions: Examples

1. New retail store outlets. 2. Robotic manufacturing equipment. 3. Digital imaging systems for healthcare facilities. 4. New chairlift for a ski resort. 5. New fleets:  Ships  Planes  Cars 6. New equipment for food preparation.

Evaluating Investment Opportunities: Time Value of Money Approaches

1. The Time Value of Money says: a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow. 2. It is necessary to convert future dollars into their equivalent present value dollars. 3. Two methods: a. Net Present Value. b. Internal Rate of Return.

Basic Time Value of Money Calculations

1. To convert future value to present value: P = F (1 + i)n

Where: P = present value F = future value i = (interest) rate of return n = number of units of time

Basic Time Value of Money Calculations: Example

Calculate the present value of \$1.00 to be paid (or collected) 5-years from now assuming an interest rate of 8%. Set it up as follows: P = 1.00 (1 + .08)5

Basic Time Value of Money Calculations: Example Solution

P = 1.00 (1 + .08)5 1.00 1.46933

Thus: \$0.68

The Net Present Value Method

1. Based on the time-value of money. 2. Recall that only incremental cash flows are relevant. 3. Three-step process.

The Net Present Value Method: Step 1

 Identify the amount and time period of each cash flow associated with a potential investment.  Note: Investment projects have both cash inflows and cash outflows.

The Net Present Value Method: Step 2

 Discount the cash flows to their present values using a required rate of return (a.k.a. hurdle rate).  Note: This is the minimum return that management will accept.

The Net Present Value Method: Step 3

 Evaluate the net present value--the sum of all of the cash inflows less cash outflows.  Note: if the net present value (NPV) is greater than or equal to zero, the investment should be made. If less than zero, it should not be made.

The Net Present Value Method: Example, Step 1

 Identify the amount and time period of each cash flow associated with a potential investment. 1. Initial cash outlay: \$70,000 2. Year 1 4 net cash savings: \$21,000 per year. 3. Year 5 net cash savings: \$26,000. 4. Required rate of return: 12%.

The Net Present Value Method: Example Step 2

 Discount the cash flows to their present values using a required rate of return (a.k.a. hurdle rate).  Initial outlay: \$70,000 x 1.00  Year 1: \$21,000 x .8929  Year 2: \$21,000 x .7972  Year 3: \$21,000 x .7118  Year 4: \$21,000 x .6355  Year 5: \$26,000 x ..5674

The Net Present Value Method: Example Step 3

 Evaluate the net present value--the sum of all of the cash inflows less cash outflows.  Year 0: (\$70,000)  Year 1: \$18,751  Year 2: \$16,741  Year 3: \$14,948  Year 4: \$13,346  Year 5: \$14,752  NPV: \$ 8,538

The Net Present Value Method: Example

 Do it! \$8,538 > \$0

The Internal Rate of Return Method

1. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is an alternative to the Net Present Value (NPV) method. 2. IRR uses the time value of money. 3. IRR is the rate of return that equates the present value of future cash flows to the investment outlay.

The Internal Rate of Return Method

1. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is an alternative to the Net Present Value (NPV) method. 2. IRR uses the time value of money. 3. IRR is the rate of return that equates the present value of future cash flows to the investment outlay. 4. IRR analysis yields a yes or no, < or > result.

The Internal Rate of Return Method: Setup

Present value factor = Initial Outlay Annuity Amount

The Internal Rate of Return Method: Example

Investment: \$100 Expected 2-year return: \$60 per year Present value factor = 100 60

The Internal Rate of Return Method: Example

1. Present value factor = 1.667 2. Approximately equal to the PV factor of 1.6681 or 13%.

The Internal Rate of Return With Unequal Cash Flows

1. For cases with unequal yearly cash flows. 2. Thus one cannot use a single present value factor. 3. Must estimate the IRR.

Summary of Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return Methods

1. Both the Net Present Value method and the Internal Rate of Return method take into account the time value of money. 2. They differ in their approach to evaluating investment alternatives.

Considering Soft Benefits In Investment Decisions

1. Soft Benefits not directly related to NPV or IRR. 2. Hard to quantify. 3. Includes indirect benefits to: a. Future sales. b. Firm reputation. c. Derivative products.

Calculating the Value of Soft Benefits Required To Make an Investment Acceptable

Needed present value = Discount factor x Value of benefits Value of Benefits: Needed Present Value Discount Factor

Estimating the Required Rate of Return

1. In the textbook examples, required rate of return was invented. 2. In practice, required rate of return must be estimated by management. 3. Under certain conditions, the required rate of return should be equal to the cost of capital for the firm.

Additional Cash Flow Considerations

1. Both the NPV and IRR require proper specification of cash flows. 2. Only cash inflows and cash outflows are discounted back to the present, not revenues and expenses.

Cash Flows, Taxes, and The Depreciation Tax Shield

1. Previously the effect of income taxes on cash flows was ignored. 2. Tax considerations play a major role in capital budgeting decisions. 3. Though depreciation does not directly affect cash flows, it indirectly affects cash flows. 4. Depreciation reduces the amount of tax (which is paid in cash) a company must pay. 5. Thus it is called a Depreciation Tax Shield.

Depreciation Tax Shield at Amazon.com

1. Amazon.com has yet to generate a profit. 2. When companies have net losses, they can carry the losses forward and offset future income for federal tax purposes. 3. This reduces cash outflows paid for taxes in future years.

Adjusting Cash Flows For Inflation

1. Inflation should not be ignored in net present value analysis. 2. Many worthwhile investment opportunities may be rejected. 3. The reason:current rates of return for debt and equity financing already include estimates of future inflation.

Simplified Approaches To Capital Budgeting

1. Payback Period Method. 2. Accounting Rate of Return.

Payback Period Method

1. The length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of an investment. 2. Example: an investment costs \$1,000 and returns \$500 per year, it has a payback period of 2-years. 3. Two serious limitations: a. Does not consider cash inflows in years beyond the payback year. b. Does not consider the time value of money.

Accounting Rate of Return

1. Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) is the average after-tax income from a project divided by the average investment in the project. 2. Example: ARR = Average Net Income Average Investment 3. Ignores the time value of money.

Conflict Between Performance Evaluation and Capital Budgeting

1. Managers should use Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return analyses to maximize shareholder wealth. 2. Managers performance (and bonus) is often measured in the short-term on accounting income. 3. Inherent conflict between what is good for the firm and what is good for the manager.

Wilson Air Example Revisited: An Example of Conflict

1. Typical example of short-run performance evaluation vs. long-run wealth maximization for firm. 2. Accounting income (short-run) as a basis for manager performance evaluation may cause managers to NOT undertake new investments. 3. Manager performance measurement and shareholder wealth maximization should be congruous.

Quick Review Question #1

1. If the net present value (NPV) of a project is zero, the project is earning a return equal to: a. Zero. b. The rate of inflation. c. The accounting rate of return. d. The required rate of return.

1. If the present value of a project is zero, the project is earning a return equal to: a. Zero. b. The rate of inflation. c. The accounting rate of return. d. The required rate of return.

Quick Review Question #2

2. A project costs \$200,000 and yields cash inflows of \$50,000 per year for 5yrars. In this case, the payback period is: a. Four years. b. Five years. c. \$50,000. d. None of these.

2. A project costs \$200,000 and yields cash inflows of \$50,000 per year for 5yrars. In this case, the payback period is: a. Four years. b. Five years. c. \$50,000. d. None of these.

Quick Review Question #3

3. The present value of \$2,000 to be collected in three years using a rate of 11% is:
a. b. c. d. \$1,462 \$2,735 \$1,333 \$1,278

3. The present value of \$2,000 to be collected in three years using a rate of 11% is:
a. b. c. d. \$1,462 \$2,735 \$1,333 \$1,278

Quick Review Question #4

4. New equipment costing \$5,000 is expected to yield net cash inflows of \$1,350 each year for the next five years. Assuming a required rate of return of 14%, should the equipment be purchased (use IRR)?
a. Yes (accept). b. No (reject).