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Islam 101

Dr. Ishaq Zahid
IslamicTheology – Basic Beliefs
Muslim Non-Muslim Relations
Quotations From Quran and Hadith
No Compulsion

Let there be no compulsion in religion.

Truth stands out clear from Error.
Whoever rejects evil and believes in
God has grasped the most trustworthy
hand-hold, that never breaks. And
God hears and knows all things.

(The Holy Quran, 2.256)

World Muslims

• 1.2 billion, Muslims represent between

19.2% and 22% of the world's
• One of every five persons in the world
is a Muslim
• Second largest religion in the world
World Distribution of Muslims
Africa 308,660,000 27.4%

Asia 778,362,000 69.1%

Europe 32,032,000 2.8%

Latin America 1,356,000 0.1%

North America 5,530,000 0.5%

World 1,126,325,000 100%

Source: Britannica Yearbook, 1997

American Muslims
6 million (The New York Times, Feb.
21, 1989)
About 40% Afro-American
Not all Muslims are Arabs, Not all
Arabs are Muslims
The Basics of Faith
Belief in One God (Allah)
Belief in Prophethood
All the Divine Books as revealed by God to
various prophets
Angels, Jinns(Demons), Life after Death
and the Day of Judgment, Heaven and Hell
Allah – the One God
Allah is the Arabic name for God used by
Muslims of the world as well as Arab
Say: He is God, the One and Only; God,
the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is
He begotten; And there is none like unto
Him. (The Quran, Chapter 112)
Allah: name in the Bible
SABACHTHANI? which is, being
interpreted, My God, My God, why hast
thou forsaken me?" (Mark 15:34).
 Elohim =Eloh +im (plural), translated to
Allah in the Arabic Bible.
Prophets and Scriptures
 SOME PROPHETS: Adam, Noah, Abraham,
Ishmael, Ishaq, Jacob (Israel), Joseph,
Benjamin, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon,
Zakareya, John, Jesus, Muhammad (peace be on
 DIVINE BOOKS: Torah, Zabur (Psalms), Injeel
(Gospel), Quran
 Belief in ALL prophets of God
 Source of All Books is God
 Main Message of all Prophets: Islam
Prophet Muhammad
 Descendant of Ishmael, the first son of Abraham.
 Born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in the year 570 C.E.
 Received first revelation at the age 40 through angel
 Died in the year 632 C.E, after preaching Islam for 23

 GEORGE BERNARD SHAW said about him:

"He must be called the Saviour of Humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to
assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its
problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness."
(The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936)
Quran: The Holy Book
 Original intact as given by the
Prophet in Arabic
 23 Years of Revelations (610 -
632 C.E.)
 114 Chapters; One Chapter,
Multiple Revelations
 Chapter (Surah) names
 Historic Context matters
 Verses Explain Verses
 Commentary needed in the
light of Arabic, History, and
Sunnah and Hadith
Approvals, disapprovals of the Prophet
Compiled in separate books, known as
Hadith books, after the death of the Prophet
Classified from authentic to false.
Quran: Verse 8:12
Often misinterpreted Verse by Islam bashers:
Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the
message): "I am with you: give firmness to the
Believers: I will instill terror into the hearts of the
Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite
all their finger-tips off them."
(The Quran, 8.12)
Read for an explanation:
Quran: Verse 8:61
008.061 But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also)
incline towards peace, and trust in God: for He is One that hears
and knows (all things).
060.008 God forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you
not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from
dealing kindly and justly with them: for God loves those who are
060.009 God only forbids you, with regard to those who fight you
for (your) Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support
(others) in driving you out, from turning to them (for friendship
and protection). It is such as turn to them (in these
circumstances), that do wrong.
Worship and

Prayers (Salah)
Charity (Zakat)
Fasting ( Ramadan)
Pilgrimage (Hajj)
Any act done according to Quran and
Sunnah to please God
Prayers (Salah)
Five Daily Prayers from Dawn to
Late Evening regulate a Muslim’s day
Prayers involve ablution, standing,
bowing, prostrating, sitting postures
Face Kabah, prayers in Arabic as
taught by the Prophet.
Additional Prayers optional
Charity (Zakat)
 024.056 So establish regular Prayer and give
regular Charity; and obey the Apostle; that ye may
receive mercy. (The Quran)
 Required 2.5% charity on yearly savings
 A Muslim must be a charitable person
 Removing a stone from the road is charity
 Greeting with a smile is a charity
 002.183 O ye who believe! Fasting is
prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those
before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint.
(The Quran)
 Ramadan is 9th month in Islamic Lunar calendar
 Daily dawn to sunset fast for 29/30 days (no
food or drink)
 Eidul-Fitr Holiday at the end
Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Pilgrimage to Makkah once in life time for
able Muslims
About 2-3 million Muslims perform Hajj
each year from all over the world.
Eidul-Adha: the biggest Muslim Holiday
Video Clip
Inside Mecca
Muslim Non-Muslim
A Christian King of Ethopia
Treaty with Jews of Madinah
Letter to Moncks of St. Catherine
A Christian King Negus of
Negus gives Protection to
migrated Muslims
First Muslim-Christian
Governmental Interaction
Treaty with Jews of Madina
Prophet has to migrate to Madina (about
200 miles from Makkah)
Signs a treaty with Jews of Madina
No compulsion in Religion
Letter to Moncks
Verily, I defend them by myself, the
servants, the helpers, and my followers,
because Christians are my citizens; and by
Allah! I hold out against anything that
displeases them. No compulsion is to be on
Their churches are to be respected.
Some Quotations from
Quran and Hadith
• Food
• Mothers
• Daughters
• Human Equality
• Justice
• Repel Evil with Goodness
• Suicide is a grave sin
002.172 O ye who believe! Eat of the good things
that We have provided for you, and be grateful to
God, if it is Him ye worship.
• Meat of animals found dead
• blood
• the flesh of swine
• Alcoholic beverages (such as beer and wine) and
• Meat on which name of God is not invoked at time of
slaughtering or meat on which some one else’s name is
Permitted: food of the People of the Book
The Qur'an elevates kindness to parents (especially
mothers) to a status second only to the worship of Allah.
Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and
that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them
attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of
contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of
honor. (Qur'an 17:23)
And We have enjoined on every human being (to be good)
to his/her parents: in travail upon travail did his/her
mother bear him/her and in years twain was his/her
weaning: (hear the command) "Show gratitude to me and
to your parents: to Me is (your final) destiny." (Qur'an
 Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) said,
Whosoever has a daughter and does not bury her
alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son
over her, Allah will enter him into Paradise.
Human Equality in Islam
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:
"No Arab has any superiority over a non-
Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any
superiority over an Arab. Nor does a
white man have any superiority over a
black man, or the black man any
superiority over the white man. You are
all the children of Adam, and Adam was
created from clay"
Justice in Islam
"Do not let your hatred of a people incite you to
aggression." (Quran 5:2)
"And do not let ill-will towards any folk incite you so
that you swerve from dealing justly. Be just; that is
nearest to heedfulness." (Quran 5:8)
‘Oh you who believe, stand up firmly for justice, as
witnesses to God, even if it be against yourselves, or
your parents, or your kin, and whether it be against
rich or poor; for God can best protect both. Do not
follow any passion, lest you not be just. And if you
distort or decline to do justice, verily God is well-
acquainted with all that you do.’” (Quran 4:135)
Repel Evil with Goodness
 041.034 Nor can goodness and Evil be equal.
Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he
between whom and thee was hatred become
as it were thy friend and intimate!
 003.134 Those who spend (freely), whether
in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain
anger, and pardon (all) men; for God loves
those who do good.
Suicide is a Grave Sin
O ye who believe! Eat not up your
property among yourselves in vanities:
But let there be amongst you Traffic and
trade by mutual good-will: Nor kill (or
destroy) yourselves: for verily God has
been to you Most Merciful! (Quran,
Concluding Remarks

Strive for peace and justice for all!

Surah Al-Fatehah
Questions (Chapter 1: The Opening)

and Answers 1. In the name of Allah, Most

Gracious, Most Merciful.
2. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher
and Sustainer of the worlds;
3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
5. Thee do we worship, and Thine
aid we seek.
6. Show us the straight way,
7. The way of those on whom Thou
hast bestowed Thy Grace, those
whose (portion) is not wrath,
and who go not astray.