Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

doc.: IEEE 802.

11-11/0272r0
Submission
February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom
Outdoor Path Loss Models for 802.11ah
Date: 2011-02-25
Authors:
Name Affiliations Address Phone email
Ron Porat Broadcom
16340 West Bernardo Dr., San
Diego, CA 92127
858-521-5409 rporat@broadcom.com
Vinko Erceg Broadcom
16340 West Bernardo Dr., San
Diego, CA 92127





Slide 1
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom
Summary


Following the discussion in [4] on channel models, we add here additional
outdoor path loss models for Macro, Micro, Pico/Hotzone(Relay) deployments
based on 3GPP LTE assumptions and COST231 channel models

It is anticipated that some of the scenarios proposed for 802.11ah fit better
Hotzone deployments and some may fit better Macro deployments

Slide 2
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
Recap - LTE Macro Path Loss Models
Macro cell propagation model for urban area is applicable for scenarios in urban and
suburban areas outside the high rise core where the buildings are of nearly uniform
height which is assumed to be 12m


h is the antenna height above roof top levels and assumed 15m (we plot path loss with
2m antenna as well)
R is in [km] and f in [MHz]

With LTE assumptions we get 15.3+37.6*log10(d) at 2GHz and where d is the distance
in meters
Frequency dependency is seen in the term and contributes 7.3dB to the path
loss difference between 2GHz and 900MHz.

In the following, we concentrate on path loss at 2GHz since most LTE models assume
that frequency.

3
10 10 10
L 40 (1 4 10 h) log (R) 18 log (h) 21 log (f) 80dB

= + +
February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 3
10
21 log (f)
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
LTE Micro-cell system simulation parameters (Table A.2.1.1-4 [1])
February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 4
Parameter Assumption
Outdoor to indoor Out-door to outdoor
Cellular Layout Hexagonal grid, 19 cell sites, 1 sectors per site
Inter-site distance See A.2.1.1-2
Distance-dependent path loss
| | | |) ( log 56 7
10
m d dB L + =

includes penetration loss

| |
| |
| |

> +
s < +
=
m d m d
m d m m d
dB L
45 ) ( log 67 39
45 10 ) ( log 20 39
10
10

Lognormal Shadowing Similar to UMTS 30.03, B 1.41.4 [6]
Shadowing standard deviation 10 dB

10dB
Correlation distance of
Shadowing
10 m 25 m
Shadowing
correlation
Between cells 0.0
Between
sectors
na
Penetration Loss Included in Distance dependent pathloss model
Antenna pattern (horizontal)
(For omni cell sites with fixed
antenna patterns)
( ) 1 = u A

Carrier Frequency CF= 2GHz
Channel model According to Table A.2.1.2-1
UE speeds of interest 3km/h 3km/h, 30km/h
Total BS TX power (Ptotal) 38 dBm 10MHz carrier [7]
UE power class 21dBm (125mW). 24dBm (250mW)

doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
Other Path Loss Models
COST 231 - This path loss model for Macro and Micro deployments is used in
the SCM channel model [3]
The Macro model is based on Hata model and assuming 2GHz frequency we get
35.2+35*log10(d) where d is the distance in meters
The Micro model is based on Walfish-Ikegami model and provides NLOS and LOS
models. The NLOS path loss model for 2GHz is 35.7+38*log10(d). The LOS model
for 2GHz is 35.7+26*log10(d)

802.11n path loss model assumes one breakpoint with LOS propagation up to
that point and an exponent 3.5 after

LTE-Advanced newer Pico path loss model [2] is 30.6+36.7*log10(d)


February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 5
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
Summary of Outdoor Path Loss Models at 2GHz
Note that Cost 231 Urban Macro, the new LTE-A Pico and LTE Macro with
2m antenna height exhibit similar path loss
February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 6
10
1
10
2
10
3
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
Path Loss Comparison at 2GHz
Tx-Rx distance [meters]
d
B


LTE Macro - 15m
LTE Macro - 2m
LTE Pico
COST231 Urban Macro
COST231 Urban Micro NLOS
LTE Micro Outdoor to Outdoor
11n model with bp=5m
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
LTE-A Path Loss Models
LTE Rel.10 [2] (LTE-Advanced) added newer low power Hotzone deployment
options and introduced newer path loss models that are partially based on
measurements conducted by China Mobile [5][6] and include a NLOS formula
and LOS formula.
Initially the two components were added together with a weight based on a probability function
but later on changed to be treated separately.

For consistency [6], the Macro model was changed to include a LOS model and
the NLOS model was adjusted
Hotzone Urban Model
PL
LOS
(d)=41.1+20.9log10(d)
PL
NLOS
(d)=32.9+37.5log10(d)
Prob(d)=0.5-min(0.5,5exp(-156/d))+min(0.5, 5exp(-d/30))
Macro Urban Model
PL
LOS
(d)=30.8+24.2*log10(d)
PL
NLOS
(d)=2.7+42.8*log10(d)
Prob(d)=min(1,18/d)*(1-exp(-d/63))+exp(-d/63)



February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 7
| | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) d PL d Prob d PL d Prob m d PL
NLOS LOS
+ = 1
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
LTE-A Hotzone Path Loss Models at 2GHz


February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 8
10
1
10
2
10
3
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Tx-Rx distance [meters]
LOS probability


LTE-A Hotzone
LTE-A Macro
10
1
10
2
10
3
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
Tx-Rx distance [meters]
d
B
Path Loss Comparison at 2GHz


LTE Macro
LTE-A Hotzone NLOS
LTE-A Hotzone LOS
LTE-A Hotzone Combined
LTE-A Macro NLOS
LTE-A Macro LOS
LTE-A Pico
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
Conclusions
Several outdoor path loss models are shown with some variation.

We note that Cost231 Macro Urban, Cost231 Micro Urban, LTE Hotzone
NLOS, LTE Pico and LTE Macro with antenna height 2m are very similar and
models from this set can be chosen.

In addition, a link budget calculation or system simulation should include the
following components:
Adjustment for different frequencies
Shadow fading with 10dB std
Penetration loss for indoor clients




February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 9
doc.: IEEE 802.11-11/0272r0
Submission
References
[1] 3GPP TR 25.814 - Physical layer aspects for evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
(UTRA) Annex A.2 system simulation scenario
[2] 3GPP TR 36.814 - Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects, Annex A.2-
system simulation scenario
[3] 3GPP TR 25.996 - Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Spatial channel
model for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) simulations
[4] 11-11-0251-00-00ah-outdoor-channel_models-for-802-11ah.ppt
[5] 3GPP TSG-RAN WG1 #56bis, R1-091566, China Mobile, Vodafone - Relay to UE channel
model for LTE-Advanced
[6] 3GPP TSG-RAN WG1 #58, R1-093270, China Mobile - Consideration on eNB-UE channel
model


















February 2011
Ron Porat, Broadcom Slide 10