You are on page 1of 13

Tools of Rhetoric Logos Pathos Ethos

LOGOS
The means of appealing to an audience through logical reasoning true, (based on fact), and which follows a logical progression.

Argument by Induction
Moving from a particular instance to a general truth (such conclusions may indeed be probable, but are not necessarily fact)
For example:
one shocked by the ending of Vertigo (1958) or Psycho (1960) assumes that all of Alfred Hitchcocks movies have surprising conclusions a woman misdiagnosed by her doctor decides doctors in general are incompetent a man who fails to get a woman pregnant after protected sex concludes that protected intercourse will never lead to pregnancy

Argument by Deduction
Moving from a general statement to a particular instance (such conclusions may sound logical, yet actually be faulty if any of the premises are wrong) For example:
all men with soapy suds on their hands are washing dishes . The man who came to the door when I rang the doorbell has soapy hands. Therefore, this man is washing dishes. [This is faulty reasoning because the premise could be wrong; a man with soapy hands might be doing laundry, bathing a child, etc.) loud music causes hearing loss. A friend of mine listens to loud music all day long; therefore, my friend must be damaging his hearing. [This reasoning is almost solid, but not quite, as a very small minority said to have iron ears can be around very loud noise frequently and never damage their hearing.]

PATHOS
The means of persuading an audience by an appeal to emotions such as pity, guilt, anger, or love. Imagery, imagination, and anecdotes (mini-stories) can be used to great effect.

To pull at your audiences heartstrings, you must know what matters to them. Consider tapping into issues like:
gender race marital status political affiliation nationality public policy popular entertainme nt socioecono mic background current events

shared tragedy or victory

faith

age

ETHOS
The means of moving an audience to agreement by establishing one's own credibility and goodwill, one's ethical or "moral" center

Intelligence and Common Sense


using arguments that sound reasonable not overstating your case acknowledging other viewpoints or potential problems

Virtue and Good Character


connecting yourself or your case to persons of integrity, good repute, or fame placing your issue within a larger framework (e.g. moral, political, or religious) with which your audience should identify

Goodwill
acknowledging and giving careful consideration to the audiences viewpoint reminding your audience of common interests and concerns acknowledging the audiences intelligence and common sense

DBTopic#1: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos


Using the rhetorical guidelines of LOGOS, PATHOS, & ETHOS, evaluate the effectiveness of the Banksy Revolution image and its implied argument(s). Explain your reasoning/critique. Post your response to our Discussion Board by 11:59 PM Friday, 24 Feb 2012.

Works Cited
English 102
http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007spring/engl/102/071/rhetorical_tools.html

Banksy FB Revolution
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Banksy-FB-Revolution/129381217128528

Reference
http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/ethos-pathos-logos/