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Topic 2: INRODUCTION TO PHONOLOGY

2.1. Speech Organ 2.2. English Sound Vowel/Diphthong Sounds Consonant Sounds
Group members: Nuraini Nasir Nabilah Yusof Hanis Athirah Rusli Nurul Asma Ibrahim Nor Khairunnisa Husna Kamaruzaman

WHAT IS SPEECH ORGANS?


The organs, which take part in the
production of speech sounds, are called speech organs. When we speak, air comes out through the lungs and it is interfered at various places

for the production of sounds.


Sounds cannot occur without air.

Speech Organ
Speech organ produce the many sound needed
for language. Also known as articulators. There are a few organ involve in the articulacy system.

Teeth Lips Toungue

Hard plate

SPEECH ORGAN
Uvula

Alveolar ridge

Glottis

Velum

Articulation system is divides into two which are: Passive articulators Active articulators

Articulators system
Passive articulator
Upper teeth

Active articulators
Tongue Uvula

Upper lips

Alveolar ridge

Hard palate

Lower jaw

Lower teeth

Lower lip

Diagram of the speech organs

English Sounds
Phonetics is the study of sounds made by humans

when they talk


English Language is bound to the phonetic script which is International Phonetic Association (IPA) method. Phonemes are the smallest unit of sound in a

language which carries distinctive meaning such


as /p/, /b/. /t/, /d/ and so on.

sound production
Three sound production processes which are initiation, phonation, and articulation. Initiation is the production of any speech sound requires the creation of an air stream in the vocal tract.

Phonation occurs as the airstream passes through the larynx, it is


modified by the vocal cords, through the introduction of voice. Articulation occurs as the airstream passes through the vocal tract,

it may be modified by the movement of the articulators such as lips


and tongue preventing its passage through the vocal tract.

Consonant
A sound in spoken language that is characterized by a

constriction or closure at one or more points along


the vocal tract.

The word consonant comes from Latin meaning


"sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel.

Consonant sounds of English


1. /p/ 2. /b/ 3. /t/ 4. /d/ 5. /k/ 6. /g/

initially pin bin tell stick day keep get

medially spin tubs light heads skill jugs

finally keep club laid stick bag

Consonant sounds of English


(continued)

initially

medially finally

7. //
8. / / 9. /m/ 10. /n/ 11. // 12. /l/

chin
joke met net lot

reached
hinged smoke snake rings fling

teach
large team tin sing full

Consonant sounds of English


(continued)

13 /f/ 14. /v/

initially fan van

medially finally soft if leaves thief

15. //
16.//

thin
then

months
clothes

bath
bathe

Consonant sounds of English


(continued)

17. /s/ 18. /z/ 19. // 20. //

initially sip zip ship measure

medially list loser rushed rouge

finally less buzz hush

Consonant sounds of English


(continued)

21. /h/ 22. /r/ 23. /w/ 24. /j/

initially hot rot watt yatch tune

medially finally behave try sweat

Vowels
Vowels will be categorized to two types
which are simple vowels/monophthongs

and diphthongs.

Vowel sounds of English


(Pure Vowels/Monophthongs) initially medially finally 1. /i:/ east sheet key 2. /I/ it hit duty 3. /e / end send 4. // and sand 5. /a:/ art heart car 6. // ox fox

Vowel sounds of English (continued)


7. /:/ 8. /U/ 9. /u:/
10.// 11./:/ 12. // initially all ooze up earn ago medially ball put choose cup learn police finally saw chew

stir

maker

Vowel sounds of English (continued)


Diphthongs
13. /e/ 14. // 15. /a/ 16./a/ 17. // 18. // 19. /e/ 20. /u/ eight oak ice out oil ears airs straight joke mice shout how boil beard peer paired cured tour stay slow my boy hare

TONGUE TWISTER COMPETITION


I saw a saw that could out saw any other saw I ever saw A good cook couldcook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies A big bug bit the little beetle but the little beetle bit the big bug back

REFERENCE
http://www.u.arizona.edu/~ohalad/Phonology/do cs/315Syllabus.pdf