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MicroMachining for Precision & Accuracy

KKWIEER,Department of Production Engineering, Nashik Complied by: Nikhil Shete ,Rachana Mandlik Prassann Joshi, Pranav Shirsath




MICRO MACHINING includes various types like: @ @ @ @ @ laser ablation. laser operations. surface micromachining. sacrificial layers. bulk micromachining.

It refers to machining of various components to very micro level . It is generally done in the presicion job work where accuracy of the finish is of prime importance even at the compromise of expenses incurred.

Surface micromachining starts with a silicon wafer or other substrate and grows layers on top. These layers are selectively etched by photolithography and either a wet etch involving an acid or a dry etch involving an ionized gas, or plasma. Dry etching can combine chemical etching with physical etching, or ion bombardment of the material. Surface micromachining can involve as many layers as is needed with a different mask (producing a different pattern) on each layer. Modern integrated circuit fabrication uses this technique and can use dozens of layers, approaching 100. Micromachining is a younger technology and usually uses no more than 5 or 6 layers. Surface micromachining uses developed technology which is very repeatable for volume production.

In micro machining various components of microelectromechanical systems are composed and various materials like silicon wafers are used as the intial filler material in the surface micromachining. Due to expensive silicon wafers they are replaced by plastic and glass. Etching process is done with photolithography to transfer a pattern from a mask to the surface. This type of etching is inexpensive and is generally used in early low budget research.

Thus, Micro Machining is of prime importance in the industrial production for precision and accuracy of the various components manufactured by various techniques and practices.

Bulk micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Unlike surface micromachining, which uses a succession of thin film deposition and selective etching, bulk micromachining defines structures by selectively etching inside a substrate. Whereas surface micromachining creates structures on top of a substrate, bulk micromachining produces structures inside a substrate. Usually, silicon wafers are used as substrates for bulk micromachining, as they can be anisotropically wet etched, forming highly regular structures. Wet etching typically uses alkaline liquid solvents, such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to dissolve silicon which has been left exposed by the photolithography masking step. These alkali solvents dissolve the silicon in a highly anisotropic way, with some crystallographic orientations dissolving up to 1000 times faster than others. Such an approach is often used with very specific crystallographic orientations in the raw silicon to produce V-shaped grooves. The surface of these grooves can be atomically smooth if the etch is carried out correctly, and the dimensions and angles can be precisely defined.

MICRO MACHINING is achieved by various ways and means.Though a comparitively costly affair still helps in the accurate finishining of the the automation components and thereby of importance in the robotics research field and other automation practices.The micromachining techniques leads to attaining well finished goods.
FIG. NO. 3 Micromachining of alloy components FIG NO. 4 Graph of surface conductance against relative humidity on laser micromachined samples.


@ Internet @ Technical Journal Copy of MEMS. @ Books related to MicroMachining of Departmental Library.

Guided By:
FIG. NO.1 Micromachining a brass Component in CNC

FIG. NO.2 Surface micromachining the aluminium sheet in the VNC.


S.B. Chandgude Head ,Dept. of Production Engineering KKWIEER NASIK