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Public relations defined

The deliberate, planned and sustained effort to institute and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics.

Publics defined

Figure 19.1

PR - marketing and corporate

Marketing PR: Long-term strategic image building, developing credibility, raising the organisations profile, and enhancing other marketing activities.

Corporate PR: Long-term relationship building strategy with various publics. Short-term tactical response to an unforeseen crisis.

PR techniques

Figure 19.2

External communication used for PR

Advertising. Publications. Lobbying.

Publicity versus advertising Advantages of publicity over advertising: Credibility - advertising is paid for whilst publicity is seen as free. Reach - PR can achieve an incredible level of reach. Excitement - Publicity is about news and can generate its own excitement.

Disadvantage of publicity over advertising: Uncontrollability - publicity is in the hands of the media.

Internal communication used for PR

House journals and newsletters.


OHT 19.9

Brassington and Pettitt: Principles of Marketing, 3rd Edition

Pearson Education Limited 2003

OHT 19.10

Brassington and Pettitt: Principles of Marketing, 3rd Edition

Pearson Education Limited 2003

Evaluating public relations

Figure 19.3

Corporate reputation

Concerned with how people feel about a company based in whatever information (or misinformation) they have on company activities, workplace, past performances and future prospects.

Fombrun, 2000

Perceived corporate reputation: stakeholders

Figure 19.4
Source: based on the value to be found in Corporate Reputation Financial Times 4th Dec., Fombrun (2000).

Five principles to corporate reputation management (Fombrun, 2000)

Distinctiveness. Focus. Consistency. Identity. Transparency.

Corporate identity

The way an organisation chooses to present itself.

Reflects the character and philosophy of the organisation.

Emphasises those characteristics that are positive.

Changing corporate identity

Figure 19.5

The change process

Figure 19.6

Reasons for failure

Figure 19.7


A business relationship between a provider of funds, resources or services and an individual, event or organisation which offers in return some rights and association that may be used for commercial advantage.

BDS Sponsorship

Types of sponsorship

Sport. Broadcast. Arts. Cause related.

Role of sponsorship

To support the broader PR strategy. Provide a venue for meeting key customers/suppliers. Improve awareness and attitudes towards company or individual brands. Support employee, government and company relations. Support wider marketing objectives. Capture imagination of publics.

Factors influencing sponsorship choice

Figure 19.8

Sponsorship evaluation methods

Media exposure measurement. Assessing communication results. Measuring sale results. Feedback from particular groups.