You are on page 1of 24

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Disability Conference UN Convention on the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities: A call For Action

on Poverty and Discrimination and lack of Access


Access to Water and Sanitation for the Disabled or the Differently Abled Presented by Andre Dzikus Chief,Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch,Section II And Debashish Bhattacharjee, Human Settlements Officer,Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch,Section II

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

It takes an hour to crawl to the wada and back. It is extremely


humiliating to be seen crawling. Often I Go alone and cannot carry any water with me; I clean myself only when I return home. It feels like hell: there is a sense of anger and helplessness. I get angry with my condition. My whole life has became a fight for survival One, I am a woman, and then, I am handicappedbecause of my leg, I cannot get up and sit repeatedly each time a man passes by. They (men) complain to my husband. I am only 18 and have already given up hope for a better life -A disabled girl, in Gujarat, India-name unknown

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Disability: How large is the problem


Approximately 10% of the worlds population ( more than 650 million) are persons with disabilities

The majority ( 80%)of disabled people live in developing countries Estimates vary from 4-10 percent of population Nepal: 10%; Bangladesh 14%

Amongst the poorest in low-income countries 1 in 5 are disabled-every family is affected

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-HABITAT and Disability


Habitat Agenda endorsed by the worlds governments Prominently addresses the issue of persons with disabilities- over 100 References;

Commits governments to promoting attaining the goals of universal and equal access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of physical, mental and environmental health, and the equal access to all to primary health care, making particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social and economic conditions, including housing, without distinction as to race, national origin, gender, or disability, respecting and promoting our common and particular cultures

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-HABITAT and Disability (contd)


Commits Governments to:

Promoting access for all people to safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services, facilities and amenities, especially for people living in poverty, women and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups Eradicating and ensuring legal protection from discrimination to shelter and basic services on the grounds of disability and age;

To promote disability-sensitive planning and management of human Settlements; Recommends that Government and local authorities should:

Promote adoption of laws, by laws standards and norms and develop planning guidelines and programmes that consider specific needs of persons with disabilities, including the chronically ill;

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-HABITAT and Disability (contd)

Encourage the adoption of laws and policies ensuring persons with disabilities full access to all new public buildings and facilities; Promote representative structures, while ensuring full and equal participation of persons with disabilities; Eliminate communication barriers to reduce social and physical isolation; Promote equal access to all levels of education and skills Recognize that people with disabilities can provide expertise in their own housing and community requirements and they should be decision makers; Enhance community awareness of health care issues Provide persons with disabilities affordable and quality health care Develop policies and guidelines and provide services that enable persons with disabilities to be housed in community based settings

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Adopted by UN General Assembly on 13December 2006 and entered into Force on 3 May 2008 Purpose: To Promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and to promote respect for their inherent dignity A development and a human rights instrument; cross sectoral; cross-disability and legally binding

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (contd)

Persons with disabilities not viewed as objects of charity, medical treatment or social protection but as subjects with rights who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on free and informed consent as well as being active members of society Gives universal recognition to the dignity of persons with disabilities

International Cooperation, including international development programmes should be inclusive of and accessible to persons with disabilities
Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved if persons with disabilities are not included Article 28: Adequate Standard of Living and Social Protection: Recognizes the right of persons with disabilities to access clean water services

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Disabled People and Water and Sanitation

Disabled people have the poorest access to water and sanitation Poor + Disability = Double impact: Amongst the poorest; almost every family is affected Inclusive facilities benefits the entire community - Reduces burden of care-givers ( mainly women) - water related infections affecting persons with disabilities puts family and community at risk - Inclusive facilities are economically more efficient ( specially created facilities are expensive) Access to water and sanitation is a human right

Disability, poor access to water and sanitation and poverty are interrelated ( e.g diarrhoea, polio, fluoride and arsenic contamination)
Diarrhoea is responsible for 5% of health loss due to disability

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in Water

Arsenic in water estimated to cause 200,000 -270,000 deaths from cancer in Bangladesh; More than 2 million cases of skeletal fluorosis in China
UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Disabled People and Water and Sanitation (contd.)


Disability, poor access to water and sanitation, poor health and poverty are interrelated

Disability

Poor access to Water And sanitation

Poor health, vulnerability and poverty

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Barriers to access

Unseen and Unheard: Official statistics often underestimate the proportion of persons with disabilities Public water and sanitation facilities usually do not consider the range of users trying to access services

Attitudinal barriers
Physical barriers

Lack of Rehabilitation and Equipment

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Barriers to Water and Sanitation

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Integrated Solutions

From WEDC Publication: Water and Sanitation For Disabled People and other vulnerable groups
UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Needs of the Differently Abled

Elderly and frail; Chronically ill; people with HIV/AIDS Menstruating girls: school absenteeism due to lack of facilities to dispose of sanitary napkins;

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Rainwater Harvesting for Centre for Disabled : Harar

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Overcoming the barriers

Participatory assessments ensuring that persons with disabilities truly participate capacity building of community facilitators on disability and access to water and sanitation + awareness raising of policy makers and service providers Attitudinal changes through HVBSHE; addressing social exclusion and stigma; Promoting a new and inclusive ethic in the community; protecting and promoting the dignity of persons with disabilities Design of User friendly water and sanitation services ( Guiding principles from Water Aid Nepal)

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Guiding Principles for Planning and Design


(WaterAid Nepal)

Accessibility: Water and sanitation facilities should be accessible to


all people including those with disabilities, elderly, pregnant women and children; consider limitations faced by the differently abled ( discomfort, fear of falling )

Access: Persons with disabilities should be able to access without assistance and without undue difficulty; barriers in the natural environment like slippery slopes and cultural practice of locating latrines far from the house should be considered Usability : Everyone should be able to use facilities ( e.g height of tap, use of platforms ) Safety: facilities to be built in a way that does not endanger life or health- consider hand rails, rough surface finishing, alarms

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Modest Adjustments Can Mean a Lot


( Illustrations from WEDC publication)

Two wooden posts to guide a blind person to a to a toilet or a water tap


UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Small Adjustments Can Mean a Lot

Raised Platform provides better access

Concrete ramp from house to toilet and tap


UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Small Adjustments Can Mean a Lot

Wooden Stool helps child sit while defecating

Handrails and painted toilet block; easy transfer from w/chair and hygiene

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-HABITAT Water and Sanitation Programme Future Directions

Collaborating with the Private sector : Developing a disability centre in Kibera, Nairobi for children with disabilities; facilitating access to infrastructure and education for Tsunami affected persons in Indian coastal cities of Nagipatnam and Prakasam

Developing policy guidelines for addressing the issue of children with disabilities in slum Mainstreaming access to persons with disabilities in the programme through policy dialogue and demonstration initiatives
UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

UN-HABITAT Water and Sanitation Programme Future Directions

Capacity building of engineers and service providers on disability related issues integrated in the water and sanitation programme of UN-HABITAT Promoting attitudinal change through HVBWSHE as a part of Water and sanitation programmes Ensuring that participatory assessments includes the voices of persons with disabilities; Preparing field guides and check lists to ensure water and sanitation initiatives address the needs of persons with disabilities

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008

Thank You

UNECA-Leonard Cheshire Conference Addis Ababa 20-22 May 2008