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Connectivity is the ability to link various media and devices.

Communication channels are the paths through which messages are passed from one location to another. Communication occurs over communication channels.

Communications is the method of sending and receiving messages electronically between two points.

Data movement over communication channels is performed through analog and digital signals.
Analog signals obtain and

translate data into continuous waveforms. Digital signals change data into discrete, discontinuous pulses.

The maximum amount of data transmitted through a communication channel is referred to as bandwidth.
Broadband is any transmission medium transporting large amounts of data at high speeds.

Communication devices that enable data transmission over telephone lines are known as modems.

Modulation is the transformation of digital signals into analog signals. Demodulation is the transformation of analog signals into digital signals. The data transfer rate, the rate at which two modems exchange data, is measured in bits per second (bps).

Data communication can be classified as

Wired or Guided media

Wireless or unguided media

Wireless transmission media refers to the methods of carrying data through the air or space using infrared, radio, or microwave signals.

Microwaves transmit data and are high-frequency electro-magnetic radio waves with very short frequencies. Satellites are microwave relay stations in space that transmit data through microwave signals to and from Earth-based stations.

Radio transmissions enable data in such forms as music, photos, and voice conversations to travel through the air as radio frequency or radio waves.

The infrared wireless transmission medium carries data through the air using light beams.

Wired Communication refers to the transmission of data over a wirebased communication technology. Examples include telephone networks, cable television or internet access, and fiber-optic communication. A wired communication system is based on several modules, enabling everything from protocol management to cable access.

Shielded Twisted-pair cables transmit data using four insulated twisted wires that shield against electromagnetic interference.
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Coaxial cables transmit data and consist of a center copper wire surrounded by a layer of braided wire. Dfgdf Dfgf

Fiber-optic cable is made up of thin strands of glass or plastic that carry data through pulses of light. Fiber optic cable can be classified as: 1.Step index multimode 2.Graded index multimode 3.Single mode fiber

STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER has a large core, up to 100 microns in diameter. As a result, some of the light rays that make up the digital pulse may travel a direct route, whereas others zigzag as they bounce off the cladding. Consequently, this type of fiber is best suited for transmission over short distances, in an endoscope, for instance.

GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER contains a core in which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding The result: a digital pulse suffers less dispersion.

SINGLE-MODE FIBER has a narrow core (eight microns or less), and the index of refraction between the core and the cladding changes less than it does for multimode fibers. Light thus travels parallel to the axis, creating little pulse dispersion. Telephone and cable television networks install millions of kilometers of this fiber every year

By: 1)Akshay Patidar 2) Anis Altaf