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Research designs


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Exploratory research Descriptive research Explanatory research


Exploratory research

Conducted when little is known about a subject


Needs of family members


Descriptive Research

studies that simply describe the occurrence of outcome and some of its important features; these do not involve the testing of specific hypothesis about the relationship of a factor and an outcome



Search for causal relationship Usually experimental





Non-Experimental Experimental


Non- Experimental Designs

Observe sample subject, Research has Massive participation Describe & record Natural setting where pop exists


Non- Experimental Designs

Case studies Surveys Developmental Studies Assessment or Evaluation Studies Comparative Studies

Correlation Studies Tracer Studies Trends and Projection Studies Ex-Post Facto Documentary Analysis

Case Studies

Is a type of detailed and in-depth research involving few respondents, ranging from one to a small size of less than 10, over a considerable period of time Ex. A case study of autistic patients


Survey Research

A survey research is used to gather relatively limited data from relatively large number of cases Purpose: to gather information about the prevailing conditions or about the variables under study Ex. Stresses and Coping Strategies of Spinal Cord Injury Patients in the Spinal Ward

Types of Survey

Total population survey Sample survey Social survey School survey Public opinion survey Poll survey Market survey

Comparative survey Longitudinal survey Cross-sectional survey Job analysis survey Community survey 3/18/12

Developmental Studies

Is used when one desires reliable information about a group of people over a long period of time

Longitudinal Method Cohort Control Sectional Method

Case Case Cross


Case Control

an observational study in which diseased and non-diseased subjects are identified after the fact and then compared regarding specific characteristics (study factors) to determine possible association for the disease in question this is a very efficient study design for studying rare diseases Ex

study comparing the nutrition knowledge 3/18/12 of mothers whose child is undernourished

Case Cohort

an observational study in which a group of individuals free of the disease is followed up for a period of time for the occurrence of disease the experience of the cohort group, i.e., disease rates, are compared to an external group (e.g. total population); or within the cohort, exposed and non-exposed populations are identified and their disease rates are compared these studies allow calculation of incidence rates Ex

a study comparing rates of HIV infection among homosexual men in San Francisco 3/18/12 who used condoms consistently and those

Longitudinal Method

the sample of participants over an extended period of time

A study on autistic children from 1 to 5 years


Cross-Sectional Studies

an observational study wherein subjects are selected or sampled; the status of each individual as to exposure and disease are determined at a single point in time cross-sectional studies determine who among the population possess a certain characteristic (exposure, disease, other characteristics) at the time of observation. this design allows calculation of the prevalence of certain characteristics Ex

Risk Factor Survey study of 3/18/12 the prevalence of several risk factors and

Assessment or Evaluation Studies

Refers to the study on the efficiency or effectiveness of policies, instruments, or the variables that may be considered

Influencing the Compliance/Noncompliance of Mothers to the Maternal and Child Healthcare Program of the DOH


Comparative Studies

Comparing the result in the differences in certain characteristics according to variable considered

effectiveness of pineapple juice as an aid in lowering blood pressure


Correlational Research

Explores the relationship between two or more variables. (independent and dependent) One variable is X. The other variable is Y

Malnutrition and Poverty Indices in the City of Malolos: Perspective in Developing Intervention Programmes


Tracer Studies

When one wants to follow up the development of certain conditions or particular sets of people

and productivity of PLM PT graduates from SY 2002-2007


Trends and Projection Studies

Used for projects that are forward looking Feasibility study


PT Demands Within Five Years Study for the Offering of BSPT



Ex Post Facto Research

It deals with the variables in retrospect, with ex post facto meaning after the fact Dependent variable have given rise to a consequence
The The

Effects of Having and Not Having Textbooks on College Algebra Effects of Therapeutic Communication in the Quality of Life of Cancer Patient

Documentary Analysis

It involves the gathering of information by analyzing written records and documents to solve a problem Uses secondary data

Relationship of IQ and Academic Performance of PLM BSPT Students


Experimental Research Designs

Future-oriented (what will be?) The most prestigious and sophisticated method Cause and effect It is never hypothesis free Control group vs. experimental group


Concepts of Experimentation
An independent variable is manipulated; (manipulation) All other variables except the treatment variable are held constant (control) Assigning subjects for the control group and experimental group (randomization) >>> homogeneity The effect of the manipulation of the independent variable on the dependent 3/18/12 variable is observed or measured.

Pre-Experimental Designs
Design No.1 The One-Shot Case Study

Where X = treatment O = posttest Example: when one wants to know the effectiveness of a certain seminar conducted to a certain audience 3/18/12

Design No.2 The One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design


X O2

Where O1 = pretest X = treatment O2 = posttest

Example: The effectiveness of diet and medicine in the treatment of 3/18/12 diabetes

Design No.3 The Static-Group Comparison

X O1 O2 Where X = treatment O1 = experimental posttest O2 = control posttest


True Experimental Design No.4 The True Control Designs

Group Design Pretest Posttest
R O1 R O3 X O2 O4

Where R = random assignment O1 = experimental pretest O3 = control pretest O2 = experimental posttest X = treatment

Design No.5 The Solomon FourGroup Design

R O1 R O3 R R

X O2 O4 O6

X O5


Design No.6 The Posttest-Only Control Group Design

R X O1 R O2

Where R = random assignment X = treatment O1 = experimental posttest O2 = control pretest


Qualitative Research Designs

Phenomenological Studies Ethnographic Studies Grounded Theory Studies Historical Studies Case Studies Action Research Studies


Phenomenological Studies

Examine human experiences through the descriptions provided by the people involved

lived experiences

Goal: to describe the meaning that experiences hold for each subject

is used to study areas in which there is little knowledge

Bracketing is the process in which 3/18/12 researchers put aside their own feelings

Ethnographic Studies

Involve the collection and analysis of data about cultural groups


alien worlds and making sense of


The systematic process of observing, detailing, describing, documenting, and analyzing the lifeways or patterns of a culture Purpose: development of cultural theories

Grounded Theory Studies

Studies in which data are collected and analyzed and then theory is developed that is grounded in the data.

An excellent method for understanding the processes through which patients learn to manage new or chronic health problems

Diversity rather than similarity is sought


Is concerned more of generation rather than testing 3/18/12

Historical Studies

Are concerned with the identification, location, evaluation, and synthesis of data from the past It seeks not only to discover the events of the past but to relate these past happenings to the present and the future Sources of data


(libraries, archives, or personal


Case Studies

Are in-depth examinations of people or groups of people Particular disease A case study may be qualitative or quantitative The researcher must be interested in the meaning of experiences to the subjects themselves Time consuming and costly

Response of DM px to insulin tx


Action Research

Seeks action to improve practice and study the effects of action that was taken
Immediate Ex.

solution to the problem

Participatory Action Research (PAR)

There is no goal of trying to generalize the findings of the study


of solutions occurs as part of the research process