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ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSERVATION IN R. S. P. Rourkela
ELECTRICAL ENERGY
CONSERVATION
IN
R. S. P. Rourkela
ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS CUMMULATIVE OF POWER CONSUMED
ELECTRICAL ENERGY
IS
CUMMULATIVE
OF
POWER CONSUMED

following criteria:

• Primary

energy

and

Secondary

Commercial and Non - commercial energy • Renewable and Non - Renewable energy

those that are either found or

stored in nature.

Common primary energy sources

are :

* Coal, * Oil,

* Natural gas,

* Biomass (such as Wood).

SECONDARY ENERGY Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; Examples-
SECONDARY ENERGY
Primary energy sources are
mostly converted in industrial
utilities into secondary energy
sources;
Examples- steam ,Heat
and electricity etc (coal, oil
or gas converted into secondary
energy)

The energy sources that are

available in the market for

a

definite price are known as

commercial energy.

Examples: Electricity, Lignite,

Coal, Oil,

Natural gas etc.

available in the commercial market for a

price are classified as

non - commercial energy.

Examples:

* Firewood, Agro waste in rural areas; * Solar energy for Water heating, Electricity generation,

For drying grain, Fish and Fruits;

* Animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for

irrigation, crushing sugarcane;

* Wind energy for lifting water and electricity

generation.

sources

a

Examples :

* Solar energy

* Wind energy * Bio energy

* Hydro energy

are essen

* Geothermal energy * Wave and tidal energy

-- The most important feature of renewable energy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful

pollutants.

Non - renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels : Such as coal, oil and gas,
Non - renewable energy is the
conventional fossil fuels :
Such as coal, oil and gas, which
are
likely to deplete with time.
Global Primary Energy Reserves Coal-The USA had the largest share of the global reserve (25.4%) followed
Global Primary Energy Reserves
Coal-The USA had the largest share of the global
reserve (25.4%) followed by Russia (15.9%), China
(11.6%). India is 4th in the list with 8.6%.
Oil-Saudi Arabia had the largest share of the
reserve with almost 23%.
Gas-Russian Federation had the largest share of
the
reserve with almost 27%.

The all India installed capacity of electric power

generating stations - 1,12,581 MW as on 31st May

2004

&

it

will

be

215,804 MW as on 2012.

As on 31 st May 2004

Consisting of

28,860 MW- hydro, 77,931 MW thermal 2,720 MW- nuclear and 1,869 MW- wind

Power)

-(Ministry of

Consumption in India

The major commercial energy consuming sectors in the country are classified below :

* Industry -

49%

* Transport -

22%

* Residential- 10%

* Agriculture - 5%

* Others -

14%

GENERATED

ENERGY (KWh) Saving benfits:

*Electricity Bill Reduction

*Reduced KW and KVA Demand

*Lower Transformer/cable loading

*Extended life *Lower maintenance Cost and time

*Less Heating

*Higher level of Comfort

Energy saving potential in some identified industries is

Iron & Steel - 10% Sugar - 20% Fertilizer - 15% Petrochemical - 15% Textile -
Iron & Steel -
10%
Sugar
-
20%
Fertilizer
-
15%
Petrochemical
- 15%
Textile
- 25%
Glass & Ceramics - 20%
Cement
-
15%
Refineries
-
10%
Paper
Pump sets
Aluminum
- 25%
-
30%
-
10%
Lighting
-
76%
Electrical System *Losses of around 10–15% are associated with the transmission and distribution of electricity in
Electrical System
*Losses of around 10–15% are associated with
the transmission and distribution of electricity in
the electrical grid.
*The power plants typically produce 50
cycle/second
(Hertz), alternating-current (AC) electricity with
voltages
between 6.6 kV and 33 kV.

like; 220 kV & 400 kV. Where transmission is over

1000 kM, high voltage direct current transmission

is also favoured to minimize the losses.

*Sub-transmission network at 132 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV

or 33 kV constitutes the next link towards the end

user.

*Distribution at 11 kV / 6.6 kV / 3.3 kV

constitutes the last link to the consumer.

Generation Efficiency η1 -> Step-up Station η2 –> EHV Transmission & Station η3 – >HV Transmission
Generation Efficiency η1 -> Step-up Station
η2
–> EHV Transmission & Station η3 – >HV
Transmission & Station η4 -> Sub-
transmission η5
–> Distribution Station η6 -> Primary
Distribution η7 -> End user Premises.
Cascade efficiency from Generation to end
user
= η1 x η2 x η3 x η4 x η5 x η6 x η7 = 87 %
Rescheduling of Loads Rescheduling of large electric loads and equipment operations, in different shifts can be
Rescheduling of Loads
Rescheduling of large electric
loads and equipment operations, in
different shifts can be planned and
implemented to minimize the
simultaneous maximum demand.
Location of Transformer Location of the transformer is very important as far as distribution loss is
Location of
Transformer
Location of the transformer is
very important as far as
distribution loss is concerned. It
is to be placed near load centre.

various options available include:

Relocating transformers and sub-stations near to load centers.

Re-routing and re-conductoring such feeders and lines where the losses / voltage

drops are higher.

Power factor improvement by incorporating capacitors at load end. Optimum loading of transformers in the system.

■ Opting for lower resistance All Aluminum Alloy Conductors (AAAC) in place of conventional Aluminum Cored
■ Opting for lower resistance All Aluminum
Alloy Conductors (AAAC) in place of
conventional Aluminum Cored Steel
Reinforced (ACSR) lines
■ Minimizing losses due to weak links in
distribution network such as jumpers, loose
contacts, old brittle conductors.

ELECTRIC MOTORS

For selecting high efficiency motors, the following can be done:

  • a) When purchasing large number of small motors or a

large motor, ask for a detailed test certificate.

  • b) See that efficiency values are specified without any

tolerance.

  • c) Check the actual input current and kW, if

replacement is done.

  • d) For new motors, keep a record of no load input

power and current.

  • e) Use values of efficiency for comparison and for

confirming.

Energy-efficient motors (EEM) are the ones

in which, design improvements are incorporated specifically to increase operating efficiency over

motors of standard design. Design improvements

focus on reducing intrinsic motor losses.

Improvements include the use of lower-loss

silicon steel, a longer core (to increase active

material), thicker wires (to reduce resistance), thinner laminations, smaller air gap between

stator and rotor, copper instead of aluminium

bars in the rotor, superior bearings and a smaller

fan, etc.

Monitoring, Maintenance & Replacement of motor to be taken care of for efficient operation of Motors.
Monitoring, Maintenance
& Replacement of motor
to be taken care of for
efficient operation of
Motors.

Systems

*The location of air compressors and the quality of air drawn by the compressors will have a significant

influence on the amount of energy consumed. *Every 4°C rise in inlet air temperature results in a higher energy consumption by 1 % to achieve

equivalent output.

*Dust Free Air Intake *Dry Air Intake

*Pressure Settings - Compressor operates between pressure ranges called as loading (cut-in) and unloading (cut-out)

pressures. (6 7 kg/cm2)

*Reducing Delivery Pressure: - A reduction in the delivery pressure by 1 bar in a compressor
*Reducing Delivery Pressure: - A reduction in the
delivery pressure by 1 bar in a compressor would
reduce the power consumption by 6 – 10 %.
*Elevation - The altitude of a place has a direct
impact on the volumetric efficiency of the
compressor.
It is evident that compressors located at higher
altitudes consume more power to achieve a
particular delivery pressure than those at sea
level, as the compression ratio is higher.
LIGHTING SYSTEM
LIGHTING SYSTEM

Some Good Practices in

Lighting

*Installation of energy efficient fluorescent lamps in place of "Conventional"

fluorescent lamps. * Installation of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL's) in place of incandescent lamps. * Installation of metal halide lamps in place

of mercury / sodium vapour lamps.

* Installation of LED panel indicator lamps in

place of filament lamps.

Electricity Billing The tariff structure generally includes the following components: *Maximum demand Charges *Energy Charges *Power
Electricity Billing
The tariff structure generally includes the
following components:
*Maximum demand Charges
*Energy Charges
*Power factor penalty or bonus rates, as levied
by most utilities
*Electricity duty charges levied w.r.t units
consumed.
*Meter rentals
*Penalty for exceeding contract demand
*Time Of Day (TOD) rates like peak and non-peak
hours (of some utilities)
The following benefits were achieved from thyristorisation of a rolling stand: * Power saving of 20-25%
The following benefits were achieved
from
thyristorisation of a rolling stand:
* Power saving of 20-25%
* Increase in productivity by 5%.
* In case of MG set one has to maintain three
rotating
machines. This causes reduced efficiency of the
total
system.

PLANT

Around 480 KWhr of electrical energy is consumed for producing one ton of finished steel product.

Average electrical load of a 4 MT

i

t

t

d

t

l

l

t i

SCOPE FOR ENERGY SAVING
SCOPE FOR
ENERGY
SAVING

1.BY SWITCH ING OFF AC, FAN &

LIGHT

WHEN NOT IN USE

2.BY SWITCH ING OFF 1/3 RD STREET LIGHTS IN NIGHT 3.BY SWITCHING OFF THE

TRANSFORMERS WHICH ARE KEPT AS

STANDBY TO SAVE NO-LOAD LOSS. 4.BY USING REDUCING VOLTAGE

TRASNFORMER