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CHAPTER 1

Introduction: The Nature of Leadership


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Learning Objectives

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Understand why leadership has been defined in so many different ways Understand how leadership will be defined in this book Understand the controversy about differences between leadership and management Understand why it is so difficult to assess leadership effectiveness
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Learning Objectives (Cont.)


Understand the different indicators used to assess leadership effectiveness Understand what aspects of leadership have been studied the most during the past 50 years Understand how leadership can be described as an individual, dyadic, group, or organizational process Understand the organization of this Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-3 book

Defining Leadership
There are almost as many

definitions of Leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept. (Stogdill, 1974)

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Definitions of Leadership
Definitions of Leadership

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Additional Controversy

Specialized role or shared influence process Type of influence process Purpose of influence attempts Influence based on reason or emotions Direct versus indirect leadership Leadership in Organizations

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Specialized Role or Shared Influence Process

Specialized Role Specific leadership role some functions cannot be shared Leaders and followers Shared Influence Process Naturally occurring Any member can be a leader at any time
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Type of Influence Process

Leadership only occurs when influence attempts results in enthusiastic commitment All types of influence need to be examined even when forcing or manipulating subordinates
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Purpose of Influence Attempts

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Leadership occurs only when people are influenced to do what is ethical and consistent with organizational goals Look at outcome of the influence attempts and not necessarily the leaders intended purpose
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Influence Based on Reason or Emotion

Traditional definitions of leadership emphasize rational, cognitive processes Recent views of leadership emphasize emotional aspects of influence

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Leadership vs. Management


Leaders and managers are completely different and mutually exclusive Managers are concerned with doing things right (efficiency) Leaders are concerned with doing the right things Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership (effectiveness)in Organizations 1-11

Leadership vs. Management (Cont.)

Leaders and managers are different roles but dont have to be different types of people

Mintzbergs 10 leadership roles Kotter differentiating between managers and leaders in terms of core processes and intended outcomes Rost view of management as an authority relationship and leadership Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-12 as a multidirectional influence

Direct vs. Indirect Leadership

Direct leadership

Leaders direct influence on immediate subordinates Leaders direct influence on lower-level employees, peers, bosses, or outsiders Cascading effect of leadership influence Influence over formal programs, management systems, and structural forms Influence over organizational culture
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Indirect leadership

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A Working Definition of Leadership


Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-14 shared objectives.

What Leaders Can Influence


What Leaders Can Influence

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Indicators of Leadership Effectiveness

Performance and growth of leaders group or organization Follower attitudes and perceptions of the leader Leaders contribution to the quality of group processes Extent to which a person has a successful career as a leader Development of a composite measure
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Immediate and Delayed Outcomes

Immediate outcomes easy to measure

Willingness to complete a project Influenced by extraneous events

Delayed outcomes difficult to assess

Leader can effect both immediate and delayed outcomes

May be inconsistent and move in opposite directions


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Leadership Causal Chain

Causal Chain of Effects from Two Types of Leader Behavior

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Key Variables in Leadership Theories

Characteristics of the Leader Characteristics of the Follower Characteristics of the Situation

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Characteristics of the Leader


Traits (motives, personality, values) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Behavior Integrity (honesty, behavior consistent with values) Influence tactics Copyright 2010 Attributions Leadership in Organizations Pearson Education, Inc. 1-20 about followers

Characteristics of the Follower


Traits (needs, values, self concepts) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Attributions about the leader Trust in the leader Task commitment and effort Satisfaction with job and leader
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Characteristics of the Situation


Type of organizational unit Size of unit Position power and authority of leader Task structure and complexity Task interdependence Environmental uncertainty External dependencies Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations National cultural values

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Causal Relationship Between Key Variables

Causal Relationships Among the Primary Types of Leadership Processes

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Overview of Major Research Approaches


Trait approach Behavior approach Power-influence approach Situational approach Integrative approach
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Level of Conceptualization for Leadership

Figure: Levels of Conceptualization for Leadership Processes

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Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization

Intra-Individual Theories

How leaders manage their time How leader traits and values influence leadership behavior How leader skills are related to leader behavior How leaders make decisions
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Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Intra-Individual Theories (Cont.)

How leaders are influenced by role expectations and constraints How leaders react to feedback and learn from experience How leaders can use self-management techniques How leaders can use self-development Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-27 techniques

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Dyadic Theories

How a leader influences subordinate motivation and task commitment How a leader facilitates the work of a subordinate How a leader interprets information about a subordinate How a leader develops a subordinates Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-28 skills and confidence

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Dyadic Theories (Cont.)

How a leader influences subordinate loyalty and trust How a leader uses influence tactics with a subordinate, peer, or boss How a leader and a subordinate influence each other How a leader develops a cooperative Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-29 exchange relationship with a

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Group-Level Theories

How different leader-member relations affect each other and team performance How leadership is shared in the group or team How leaders organize and coordinate the activities of team members How leaders influence cooperation and Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations resolve disagreements in the team or 1-30

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Group-Level Theories (Cont.)

How leaders influence collective efficacy and optimism for the team or unit How leaders influence collective learning and innovation in the team or unit How leaders influence collective identification of members with the team or unit How unit leaders obtain resources and Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-31 support from the organization and other

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Organization-Level Theories

How top executives influence lower-level members How leaders are selected at each level (and implications of process for the firm) How leaders influence organizational culture How leaders influence the efficiency and Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in Organizations 1-32 the cost of internal operations

Research Questions at Different Levels of Conceptualization (Cont.)

Organization-Level Theories (Cont.)

How leaders influence human relations and human capital in the organization How leaders make decisions about competitive strategy and external initiatives How conflicts among leaders are resolved in an organization How leaders influence innovation and Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Leadership in organization major change in anOrganizations 1-33

Level of Conceptualization for Leadership


Intra-individual process focuses on processes within a single individual Dyadic process focuses on the relationship between a leader and another individual Group process focuses on the leadership role in a task group and how a leader contributes to group effectiveness Organizational process focuses on leadership as a process that occurs in a larger open system in which groups are a subsystem Multi-level theories include constructs from more than one level of explanation
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Other Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories

Leader vs. Follower-Centered Theory Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory Universal vs. Contingency Theory

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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