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Profit oriented : Target return
Maximize profit

Sales oriented : Dollar or unit sales

growth Growth in market share

Exchange value in money term





Pricing method
Based Based Based Based on on on on cost demand market customer

Based on Cost :
Mark up pricing : Adopted by sellers
find the total cost & expenses incurred on the purchase of the item then add a mark up . This mark up may be fixed amount or percentage of purchase cost .

Cost plus pricing : Adopted by producer

first find out total cost incurred to manufacture the item.

Add to total cost a profit margin, profit can be fixed amount or percentage of total cost .

Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost

Target rate of return : Small scale units apply

this method . Rate of return can be : 1. Fixed amount 2. Percentage of investment Investment + Rate = Total revenue

Based on Demand : Received value pricing : Ask customer what is

the value he is expecting and then fix the price . Demand differential pricing : More demand higher price . Low demand low price .

Based on Market :
Form of market Number of firms Nature of product Price elasticity of demand Degree of control Example



Unique product

Very small

Considera ble



A large no of firms

Product Large differentiateby each other Homogeneous Small



Few firms


Steel industry , Film

Based on Customer :
The customer is asking the seller to bid his price . The customer / buyer provides the details and specifications material to be purchased. The seller will then calculate their own costs and price the item as they deem fit .

Fixing price of new product

Penetration price

Skimming price

Penetration price :
Initially fixing low price later increase to market level this is applicable to me too product such product are already available and there is no difference in our products . Generally applicable to consumer items low value item, convenience goods.

Skimming price :
Charge initially high price to recover. cost of high technology sometimes the first mover wants to take advantage of charging monopoly price. Later, after the market in picking up or more new competitors have entered start charging low price to take advantage of your name as first mover.

This can be applied to high technology products, computer peripherals engineering and electronics items gift.

There are many factor determining the price, but I have explained only few fields or factor. Pricing strategies is a very important concept in the German companies strategies planning.

Price is the main factor that determine the Brand name or Goodwill.

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