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European Security

Eric Remacle
Professor, Universit libre de Bruxelles (ULB) Institute of European Studies Visiting Professor, University of Pittsburgh

1. The European Security Strategy:

A Secure Europe in a Better World (Dec. 2003)
Large scale aggression against any Member state is now improbable. Instead Europe faces new threats which are more diverse, less visible and less predictable . *Key threats

*Building security in our neighbourhood

Promote ring of well governed countries around EU Resolution of Arab-Israeli conflict is a strategic priority

Terrorism Proliferation of WMD Regional conflicts State failure Organised crime

*International order based on effective multilateralism

*Addressing the threats

Strengthening the UN Core element of international system is transatlantic relations Support to multilateralism: WTO, Kyoto protocol, ICC

First line of defence often abroad Need for preventive action

*Promotion or regional integration worldwide and establishment of strategic partnerships

2. The European Union and European Security: A wider agenda for CFSP

CFSP statements CFSP calendar European Security Strategy Non-proliferation, disarmament and arms controls Security-related export controls EU Special Representatives Personal Representatives of the SG/HR Third countries and regions EU human rights policy International humanitarian law United Nations International Criminal Court OSCE and Council of Europe Fight against terrorism Sanctions Reference (list of all legal documents)

3. The Start of European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)

Established in 2000 (before the defence component of the EU was delegated to another organization: the WEU) ESDP is the crisis management dimension of CFSP; it works according to the same procedures and is managed by the same institutions Crisis management is wider than pure military operations: it refers also to civilian operations (police deployment, demining, support to the rule of law, customs and border control)

ESDP is designed for deploying 60,000 troops and 5,000 civilian policemen abroad (today: much less)
Fast deployment is possible for batllegroups created by member-states (13 battlegroops of 1,500 troops among which 2 are permanently deployable)

4. Two Patterns for Military Operations

EU using NATO assets (= Berlin plus mechanism) -- Op Cdr: either MS or NATO D-SACEUR -- OHQ: either MS or SHAPE - NATO assets = CJTF

EU alone (no NATO involvement) -- Op Cdr.: MS

-- OHQ: MS with HQ assets (D/F/IT/UK/GR) or EU civilian-military cell or Multinational force (Eurocorps)


Ex.: EUFOR in BiH

No European army, military operations based on national capabilities

5. EU Military Operations: What They Are, What They Are Not CONCORDIA ARTEMIS ALTHEA

Strategic command and political control: PSC (support of EUMS) But command structures (headquarters) come either from member-states (framework-nation) or from NATO EU has established an embryo of civilian-military cell which could be on the long-term the basis for EU headquarters

Most EU troops deployed under national flags (forces in Iraq, bilateral defence agreements between France or UK and their former colonies in Africa), UN flags (Cyprus, Lebanon, Sierra Leone) or NATO flags (Afghanistan, Kosovo) ESDP is very reactive, no strategic design (except Balkans)

6. The Lisbon Treaty

* More coordination/centralization of external policies

A permanent Chairman of the European Council will coordinate external representation of the Union The position of the High Representative is strengthened: becomes Vice-President of the Commission for External Relations and chairs the Foreign Affairs Council He/She will rely on an European external action service

* Integration by military means

European Defence Agency is working since 2004 Concept of permanent structured co-operation (core group used for benchmarking in military efforts) Longer list of ESDP missions Solidarity clause Clause of mutual assistance in case of aggression (opt out for neutral states)

7. NATOs Strategic Changes

* Expansion To borders of former Soviet Union and Black Sea (Baltic States, Poland, Romania) To Balkans (Albania, Croatia, Macedonia + troops in Kosovo) Question of membership of Ukraine and Georgia Strategic Partnership with Russia Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council Mediterranean Policy Global Partnerships (Australia, NZ, Japan, Korea, Israel) NATO in Afghanistan: a Model or an Exceptional Case ? * Military Integration and the Role of European Union Frances reintegration of military structures in 2009 US give-up with the antiballistic missile system; only protection against tactical missiles organized within NATO The uncertain future of nuclear tactical weapons in NATO Complementarity and competition between ESDP and NATO New threats ? Proliferation of WMD, Terrorism, Organized Crime NATO in the Middle East ? The Gaza Strip Temptation