Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications Department of Electrical Engineering

Lecture 4
The 8051 Architecture
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4 1

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

In this Lecture
Overview General physical & operational features Block diagram Pin assignments

Logic symbol
Hardware description Pin description Read-modify-write port instructions
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Overview of the 8051


Made by Intel in 1981 An 8-bit, single-chip microcontroller optimized for control applications 128 bytes RAM, 4096 bytes (4KB) ROM, 2 timers, 1 serial port, 4 I/O ports 40 pins in a dual in-line package (DIP) layout

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

General Physical Features


4KB ROM

128 bytes internal RAM


4 register banks of 8 bytes each (R0-R7) 16 bytes of bit-addressable area 80 bytes of general purpose memory

Four 8-bit I/O ports (P0-P3) Two 16-bit timers (Timer0 & Timer1)

One serial receiver-transmitter interface


Five interrupt sources (2 external & 3 internal) One oscillator (generates clock signal)
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

General Operational Features


Memory of 8051 can be increased externally:
Increase memory space for codes (programs) by 64K Increase memory space for data by 64K

Boolean instructions work with 1 bit at a time

Assume clock frequency = 12MHz, it takes about 4 s (i.e. 4 x 10-6s) to carry out a 8-bit multiplication instruction
5

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

The 8051 Block Diagram


External Interrupts 4K byte ROM 128 byte RAM
Timer 1 Timer 0

Interrupt Control

Counter Inputs

CPU

OSC

Bus Control

I/O Ports

Serial Port

TXD RXD P0 P2 P1 P3 (Address/Data)


Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

The 8051 Pin Assignments


P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD) P3.0 (TXD) P3.1 (INT0) P3.2 (INT1) P3.3 (T0) P3.4 (T1) P3.5 (WR) P3.6 (RD) P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 VCC P0.0 P0.1 P0.2 P0.3 P0.4 (AD0) (AD1) (AD2) (AD3) (AD4)

8051

P0.5 (AD5) P0.6 (AD6) P0.7 (AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7 (A15) P2.6 (A14) P2.5 (A13) P2.4 (A12) P2.3 (A11) P2.2 (A10) P2.1 (A9) P2.0 (A8)

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

The 8051 Logic Symbol


VSS XTAL1 XTAL2 VCC RST P0.7 P0.6 P0.5 P0.4 P0.3 P0.2 P0.1 P0.0 P1.7 P1.6 P1.5 P1.4 P1.3 P1.2 P1.1 P1.0 P O R T 0

ADDRESS AND DATA BUS

EA PSEN ALE

P O R T 1

SECONDARY FUNCTIONS

RxD TxD INT0 INT1 T0 T1 WR RD

P O R T 3

P3.7 P3.6 P3.5 P3.4 P3.3 P3.2 P3.1 P3.0

P2.7 P2.6 P2.5 P2.4 P2.3 P2.2 P2.1 P2.0

P O R T 2

ADDRESS BUS

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Hardware Description
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Oscillator circuit Program counter (PC) Data pointer (DPTR) Accumulator (A) register B register Flags Program status word (PSW) Internal memory (ROM, RAM, additional memory) 9. Stack & stack pointer (SP) 10. Special function register (SFR)
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Oscillator Circuit

The heart of the 8051 Produces clock pulses Synchronize all 8051s internal operations

A single machine cycle consists of 12 crystal pulses !

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

10

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Machine Cycle
Machine cycle is the basic repetitive process that the CPU performs once it is powered on. A machine cycle consists of a fixed number of clock cycles (pulses). It is different for different kinds of CPU. The 8051 family needs 12 clock cycles for a machine cycle.

The CPU takes one or more machine cycles to complete an instruction. More complex instructions require more number of machine cycles to complete the instruction. The number of machine cycles of the 8051 instructions are ranging from 1 to 4.

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

11

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 4-1
Find the elapse time of the machine cycle for: (a) XTAL = 11.0592 MHz (b) XTAL = 16 MHz (c) XTAL = 20 MHz
Solution: (a) 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz Machine cycle = 1 / 921.6 kHz = 1.085 s (b) 16 MHz / 12 = 1.333 MHz Machine cycle = 1 / 1.333 MHz = 0.75 s (c) 20 MHz / 12 = 1.667 MHz Machine cycle = 1 / 1.667 MHz = 0.60 s
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

12

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Program Counter (PC)


PC is a 16-bit register PC is the only register that does not have an internal address Holds the address of the memory location to fetch the program instruction Program ROM may be on the chip at addresses 0000H to 0FFFH (4Kbytes), external to the chip for addresses that exceed 0FFFH Program ROM may be totally external for all addresses from 0000H to FFFFH PC is automatically incremented (+1) after every instruction byte is fetched
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

13

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Data Pointer (DPTR)


DPTR is a 16-bit register DPTR is made up of two 8-bit registers: DPH and DPL DPTR holds the memory addresses for internal and external code access and external data access
(eg. MOVC A,@A+DPTR MOVX A,@DPTR MOVX @DPTR,A )

DPTR is under the control of program instructions and can be specified by its 16-bit name, or by each individual byte name, DPH and DPL DPTR does not have a single internal address; DPH and DPL are each assigned an address (83H and 82H)
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

14

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Accumulator (A Register)
Most versatile CPU register and is used for many operations, including addition, integer multiplication and division, and Boolean bit manipulations A register is also used for all data transfer between the 8051 and any external memory

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

15

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

B Register
B register is used with the A register for multiplication and division operations (eg. MUL AB DIV AB) No other special function other than as a location where data may be stored

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

16

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Flags
Flags are 1-bit registers provided to store the results of certain program instructions Other instructions can test the condition of the flags and make decisions based on the flag states Flags are grouped inside the program status word (PSW) and the power control (PCON) registers for convenient addressing Math flags: respond automatically to the outcomes of math operations (CY, AC, OV, P) User flags: general-purpose flags that may be used by the programmer to record some event in the program (F0, GF0, GF1)
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

17

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Program Status Word (PSW)


PSW contains the math flags, user program flag F0, and the register select bits (RS1, RS0) that identify which of the four general-purpose register banks is currently in use by the program
7 CY 6 AC 5 4 3 2 F0 RS1 RS0 OV 1 -0 P

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

18

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Program Status Word (PSW)


Bit Symbol Function
7 6 CY AC Carry Flag; used in arithmetic, JUMP, ROTATE, and BOOLEAN instruction Auxiliary carry flag; used for BCD arithmetic

5
4 3 2 1 0

F0
RS1 RS0 OV -P

User flag 0
Register bank select bit 1 Register bank select bit 0 Overflow flag; used in arithmetic instructions Reserved for future use Parity flag; shows parity of register A: 1 = Odd Parity
Week 4

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

19

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Instruction that Affect Flag Bits


Instruction ADD ADDC SUBB MUL CY X X X 0 OV X X X X AC X X X Instruction SETB C CLR C CPL C ANL C, bit CY 1 0 X X OV AC

DIV DA
RRC RLC MOV C, bit

0 X
X X X

ANL C, /bit ORL C, bit


ORL C, /bit CJNE

X X
X X

Note: X can be 0 or 1
Week 4

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

20

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Internal Memory
A functioning computer must have memory for
program code bytes, commonly in ROM, and RAM memory for variable data that can be altered as the program runs 8051 has internal RAM (128 bytes) and ROM (4Kbytes) 8051 uses the same address but in different memories for code and data Internal circuitry access the correct memory based on the nature of the operation in progress Can add memory externally if needed
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

21

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

8051 Internal RAM Organisation


1F 1E 1D 1C 1B 1A 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0F 0E 0D 0C 0B 0A 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 7F

Bank 2

Bank 3

2F 2E 2D 2C 2B 2A 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

7F 77 6F 67 5F 57 4F 47 3F 37 2F 27 1F 17 0F 07

78 70 68 60 58 50 48 40 38 30 28 20 18 10 08 00

Bank 0

Bank 1

30

Working Registers
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Bit Addressable

General Purpose
Week 4

22

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-5
State the contents of RAM locations after the following program: MOV R0, #99H MOV R1, #85H MOV R2, #3FH MOV R7, #63H MOV R5, #12H After the execution of the above program we have the following: RAM location 0 has value 99H RAM location 1 has value 85H RAM location 2 has value 3FH RAM location 7 has value 63H RAM location 5 has value 12H
23

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Program Status Word (PSW)


Bank Select Bits, RS1, & RS0 to select 1 of 4 register bank

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

24

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-6
Repeat Example 2-5 using RAM addresses instead of register names.
This is called direct addressing mode and uses the RAM address location for the destination address. MOV 00, #99H MOV 01, #85H MOV 02, #3FH MOV 07, #63H MOV 05, #12H

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

25

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-7
State the contents of RAM locations after the following program:
SETB MOV MOV MOV MOV MOV PSW.4 R0, #99H R1, #85H R2, #3FH R7, #63H R5, #12H

6
AC

5
F0

4
RS1

3
RS0

2
OV

1
--

0
P

PSW

CY

By default, PSW.3=0 and PSW.4=0; therefore, the instruction SETB PSW.4 sets RS1=1 and RS0=0, thereby selecting register bank 2. Register bank 2 uses RAM locations 10H 17H. After the execution of the above program we have the following RAM location 10 has value 99H RAM location 11 has value 85H RAM location 12 has value 3FH RAM location 17 has value 63H RAM location 15 has value 12H
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

26

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Stack and Stack Pointer (SP)


SP is a 8-bit register used to hold an internal RAM address that is called the top of the stack Stack refers to an area of internal RAM that is used in conjunction with certain opcodes to store and retrieve data quickly SP holds the internal RAM address where the last byte of data was stored by a stack operation When data is to be placed on the stack, the SP increments before storing data on the stack so that the stack grows up as data is stored As data is retrieved from the stack, the byte is read from the stack, and then the SP decrements to point to the next available byte of stored data SP = 07H after reset
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

27

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Stack Operation
Store Data Get Data

SP = 0A

Address 0A

SP = 0A

Store Data

Get Data

SP = 09

Address 09

SP = 09

Store Data

Get Data

SP = 08

Address 08

SP = 08

SP = 07
Storing Data on the Stack (Increment then store)

Address 07 Internal RAM (Get then decrement)

SP = 07
Getting Data From the Stack

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

28

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-8
Show the stack and stack pointer for the following. Assume the default stack area. MOV R6, #25H MOV R1, #12H MOV R4, #0F3H PUSH 6 PUSH 1 PUSH 4
After PUSH 6 0B 0A 09 08 0B 0A 09 08 25 SP = 08 After PUSH 1 0B 0A 09 12 08 25 After PUSH 4 0B 0A F3 09 12 08 25

SP = 07
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

SP = 09

SP = 0A
Week 4

29

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-9
Examine the stack, show the contents of the registers and SP after execution of the following instruction. All values are in hex. POP 3 ;POP stack into R3 POP 5 ;POP stack into R5 POP 2 ;POP stack into R2
After POP 3 0B 54 0A F9 09 76 08 6C Start SP = 0B 0B 54 0A F9 09 76 08 6C SP = 0A After POP 5 0B 54 0A F9 09 76 08 6C SP = 09 After POP 2 0B 54 0A F9 09 76 08 6C SP = 08

05 04 03 02

?? ?? ?? ??

05 04 03 02

?? ?? 54 ??

05 04 03 02

F9 ?? 54 ??

05 04 03 02

F9 ?? 54 76
Week 4

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

30

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 2-10
Show the stack and stack pointer for the following. MOV SP, #5FH MOV R2, #25H MOV R1, #12H MOV R4, #0F3H PUSH 2 PUSH 1 PUSH 4
After PUSH 2 63 62 61 60 Start SP = 5F
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

After PUSH 1 63 62 61 12 60 25 SP = 61

After PUSH 4 63 62 F3 61 12 60 25 SP = 62
Week 4

63 62 61 60 25 SP = 60

31

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Special Function Registers (SFR)


8051 has 21 SFRs which occupy the addresses from 80H to FFH (128bytes) Not all of the addresses from 80H to FFH are used for SFRs Attempt to use the empty addresses may get unpredictable result

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

32

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Special Function Register Map


Bit addressable

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

33

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Value of SFR at Reset

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

34

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Internal ROM
Internal ROM occupies the code address space from 0000H to 0FFFH (Size = 4K byte) Program addresses higher than 0FFFH will automatically fetch code bytes from external program memory Code bytes can also be fetched exclusively from an external memory by connecting the external access pin (EA) to ground

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

35

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Some Important Pins


VCC (pin 40 - provides supply voltage of +5V) GND (pin 20) XTAL1 & XTAL2 (pins 19 & 18 - to crystal and then caps) RST (pin 9- reset) EA (pin 31 - external access) PSEN (pin 29 - program store enable) ALE (pin 30 - address latch enable) Ports 0-3
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

36

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

I/O Ports (P0 - P3)


One of the most useful features of the 8051 is that it consists of 4 I/O ports (P0 - P3)
All ports are bidirectional (they can take input and to provide output) All ports have multiple functions (except P1) All ports are bit addressable On RESET all the ports are configured as output When a bit latch is to be used as an input, a 1 must be written to the corresponding latch by the program to configure it as input (eg. MOV P1, #0FFH)
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

37

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 0
Occupies a total of 8 pins (Pins 32-39) Can be used for :
Input only Output only Input and output at the same time (i.e. some pins for input and the others for output)

Can be used to handle both address and data Need pull-up resistors

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

38

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 0 as an Output Port


The following code will continuously send out to port 0 the alternating values 55H and AAH
MOV MOV ACALL CPL SJMP A, #55H P0, A DELAY A BACK

BACK:

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

39

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 0 as an Input Port


In the following code, port 0 is configured first as an input port by writing 1s to it, and then data is received from that port and sent to P1
MOV MOV MOV MOV SJMP A, #0FFH P0, A A, P0 P1, A BACK

BACK:

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

40

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Dual Role of Port 0

When connecting an 8051 to an external memory, port 0 provides both address and data (AD0 AD7) When ALE = 0, it provides data D0 D7 When ALE = 1, it provides data A0 A7 ALE is used for demultiplexing address and data with the help of

a 74LS373 latch

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

41

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 1
Occupies a total of 8 pins (Pins 1-8) Can be used as input or output Does not need any pull-up resistors

Upon reset, port 1 is configured as an output port


No alternative functions

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

42

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 1 as an Output Port


The following code will continuously send out to port 1 the alternating values 55H and AAH
MOV MOV ACALL CPL SJMP A, #55H P1, A DELAY A BACK

BACK:

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

43

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 1 as an Input Port


In the following code, port 1 is configured first as an input port by writing 1s to it, and then data is received from that port and saved in R7, R6, and R5
MOV MOV MOV MOV ACALL MOV MOV ACALL MOV MOV
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

A, #0FFH P1, A A, P1 R7, A DELAY A, P1 R6, A DELAY A, P1 R5, A


Week 4

44

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 2
Occupies a total of 8 pins (Pins 21-28)

Similar function as Port 1


Can be used as input or output

Does not need any pull-up resistors


Upon reset, port 2 is configured as an output port

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

45

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 2 as an Output Port


The following code will continuously send out to port 2 the alternating values 55H and AAH
MOV MOV ACALL CPL SJMP A, #55H P2, A DELAY A BACK

BACK:

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

46

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 2 as an Input Port


In the following code, port 2 is configured first as an input port by writing 1s to it, and then data is received from that port and sent to P1
MOV MOV MOV MOV SJMP A, #0FFH P2, A A, P2 P1, A BACK

BACK:

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

47

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Dual Role of Port 2


When connecting an 8051 to an external memory, port 2 provides both address (A8 A15) It is used along with P0 to provide the 16-bit address

When P2 is used for the upper 8 bits of the 16bit address, it cannot be used for I/O

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

48

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 3
Occupies a total of 8 pins (Pins 10-17) Similar function as Port 1 and Port 2 Can be used as input or output Does not need any pull-up resistors Upon reset, port 3 is configured as an output port Pins can be individually programmable for other uses Most commonly be used to provide some important signals (e.g. interrupts)

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

49

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Port 3 Alternate Functions


P3 Bit
P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Function
RxD TxD INT0 INT1 T0 T1 WR RD

Pin
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Week 4

50

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Read-Modify-Write Feature
A method used to access the 8051 ports Combining all 3 actions in a single instructions :
Read the data at the port Modify (do operation on) the data at the port Write the results to the port Example:
AGAIN: MOV XRL ACALL SJMP P1, #55H P1, #0FFH DELAY AGAIN
ANL P1, A ORL P2, A XRL P3, A JBC P1.1, LABEL CPL P3.0 INC P2 DEC P2 DJNZ P3, LABEL

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

51

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Single-bit Addressability of Ports


One of the most powerful features of the 8051 Access only one or several bits of the port instead of the entire 8 bits
BACK: CPL ACALL SJMP P1.2 DELAY BACK

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

52

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Example 4-2
Write a program to perform the following:
(a) Keep monitoring the P1.2 bit until it becomes high; (b) When P1.2 becomes high, write value 45H to port 0; and (c) Send a high-to-low (H-to-L) pulse to P2.3
SETB MOV AGAIN: JNB ; now P1.2 = 1 P1.2, AGAIN ; wait until P1.2=1 P1.2 A, #45H ; config pin P1.2 as input

MOV SETB CLR


Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

P0, A P2.3 P2.3


Week 4

53

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Summary
General physical & operational features
8051 hardware description 8051 pin description Read-modify-write port instructions

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

54

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Review Questions
1. 2. In the 8051, the program counter is _________ bits wide. True or false. Every member of the 8051 family, regardless of the maker, wakes up at memory 0000H when it is powered up. At what ROM location do we store the first opcode of an 8051 program? The instruction MOV A, #44H is a ______-byte instruction. What is the ROM address space for the 8052 chip? The flag register in the 8051 is called __________. What is the size of the flag register in the 8051? Which bits of the PSW register are user-definable?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

55

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Review Questions
9. Find the CY and AC flag bits for the following code.
MOV ADD A, #0FFH A, #01

10. Find the CY and AC flag bits for the following code. MOV A, #0C2H ADD A, #3DH 11. What is the size of the SP register? 12. With each PUSH instruction, the stack pointer register (SP) is _______ (incremented/decremented) by 1. 13. With each POP instruction, the SP _____ (incremented/decremented) by 1. 14. ON power up, the 8051 uses RAM location _____ as the first location of the stack.
Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Week 4

56

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Review Questions
15. On power up, the 8051 uses bank ____ for registers R0 R7. 16. On power up, the 8051 uses RAM locations _____ to _____ for register R0 R7 (register bank 0). 17. Which register bank is used if we alter RS0 and RS1 of the PSW by the following two instruction? SETB SETB PSW.3 PSW.4

18. In Question 17, what RAM locations are used for register R0 R7?

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

57

EEE3410 Microcontroller Applications

Read reference
The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Using Assembly and C, Mazidi

Chapter 8

P.217 P.227

The 8051 Microcontroller Hardware, Software and Interfacing, James W. Stewart

Chapter 1
Chapter 2

P.1 P.16
P.19 P.35

Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Week 4

58