Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

Understanding Dyscalculia

Speaker Information
Kay Haralson Associate Professor of Mathematics Developmental Studies Program Austin Peay State University Clarksville, TN 37044 haralsonk@apsu.edu www.apsu.edu/haralsonk

Understanding Dyscalculia
Definitions of Dyscalculia
No universal definition (a few samples) An unexpected difficulty that some people have in dealing with mathematical problems (Attwood) A condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetic skills (The British Dyslexia Association, www.bdadyslexia.org.uk) Having huge problems in math, in spite of being of normal intelligence (www.dys.dk)

Understanding Dyscalculia
Definitions of Dyscalculia
Difficulties in performing mathematics calculations of certain types (www.dyscalculiainfo.org) A term referring to a wide range of lifelong learning difficulties involving math. There is no single form of math disability, and difficulties vary from person to person and affect people differently in school and throughout life. (www.ld.org)

Understanding Dyscalculia
Diagnostic Criteria for Mathematics Disorder
(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Association)

Mathematical ability, as measured by individually administered standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the persons chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The math difficulties significantly interfere with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require mathematical ability. If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in mathematics ability are in excess of those usually associated with it.

Understanding Dyscalculia
Skills Impaired in Mathematics Disorder
(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Association)

Linguistic skills: understanding or naming mathematical terms, operations, or concepts, and decoding written problems into mathematical symbols Perceptual skills: recognizing or reading numerical symbols or arithmetic signs and clustering objects into groups Attention skills: copying numbers or figures correctly, remembering to add in carried numbers, and observing operational signs Mathematical skills: following sequences of mathematical steps, counting objects, and learning multiplication tables

Understanding Dyscalculia
Underlying Causes (www.ldonline.org)
Visual-spatial difficulties-trouble processing what the eye see Weakness in visual processing of numbers and mathematical situations Auditory processing difficulties- trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears.

Understanding Dyscalculia
Underlying Causes (www.ldonline.org)
Attention deficits Memory problems Information processing deficits Motor disabilities Problems with sequencing, organizing information Problems with understanding concepts and symbols

Understanding Dyscalculia
Prevalence of Dyscalculia
5-8% of school age children (Strauss, 2003) 3-6% of population (www.bda-dyslexia.org) 6-7% of school age children
(www.ldonline.org)

1% of all children (www.dys.dk) 1% of all school age children have Mathematics Disorder (DSM-IV-TR, 2000) 5-6% of all children (Adler, 2001)

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age Young Children (www.ld.org)
Difficulty with number sense Difficulty learning to count Trouble recognizing printed numbers Difficulty with connecting the idea of a number with what it represents in the real world

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age Young Children (www.ld.org)
Poor memory for numbers Trouble organizing things in a logical way, sorting by shape, size, color, etc. Trouble recognizing groups and patterns Trouble comparing and contrasting, smaller/larger, taller/shorter

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age School Age Children (www.ld.org)
Trouble learning math facts Difficulty developing math problem solving skills Poor long term memory for math functions Not familiar with math vocabulary Difficulty with measuring things

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age School Age Children (www.ld.org)
Avoiding games that require strategy Visual-spatial difficulties hinder comprehension of written mathematics Difficulties reading a clock Problems with time perception, leads to problems with planning time required to complete a task

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age Teenagers and Adults (www.ld.org)
Difficulty estimating cost (shopping, groceries) Difficulty learning math concepts beyond basic math facts Poor ability to budget or balance a checkbook Trouble with concepts of time, such as going by a schedule or approximating time

Understanding Dyscalculia
Symptoms or Warning Signs by Age Teenagers and Adults (www.ld.org)
Trouble with mental math Difficulty finding different approaches to one problem Trouble with visualizing patterns, different parts of a math problem or identifying critical information needed in problem solving

Understanding Dyscalculia
Signs That Difficulties With Math are Beyond Normal
(www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu, www.dyscalculia.org)

Good in verbal skills, but difficulty with math skills Good memory for printed words, but difficulty reading numbers or recalling numbers in sequence. Good with general math concepts, but frustrated when specific computation or organization skills need to be used.

Understanding Dyscalculia
Signs That Difficulties With Math are Beyond Normal
(www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu, www.dyscalculia.org)

Trouble with the concept of time: late, doesnt remember schedules, cant approximate how long a task will take, confused on past/future events Poor sense of direction, confusion on left/right orientation Easily disoriented and easily confused by changes in routine

Understanding Dyscalculia
Signs That Difficulties With Math are Beyond Normal
(www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu, www.dyscalculia.org)

Poor long term memory, will know math facts one day, not remember the next Fails to see big financial picture History of academic failure contributing to the development of learned helplessness in mathematics

Understanding Dyscalculia
Identifying Dyscalculia
(www.ldonline.org, www.dyscalculiainfo.org)

Should include a one-to-one mathematics interview, including the use of manipulatives, i.e. coins, base ten block, geoboards, cuisenaire rods, tangrams, calculator. The interview should: - focus on how the child does the mathematics - explore the childs ability to compute, make predictions based on understanding patterns, sort in a logical way, organize space with flexibility, and to measure

Understanding Dyscalculia Identifying Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.dyscalculiainfo.org)

- note strengths and weaknesses - note whether child talks to herself, draws a picture to help understand a situation, asks for problem to be repeated - see if child has the capacity to estimate before doing computations There are no universally accepted tests for diagnosing dyscalculia.

Understanding Dyscalculia Identifying Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.dyscalculiainfo.org)

Tests for Dyscalculia by Tony Attwood, First and Best in Education, Ltd.- general comparative tests used to help identify areas of difficulty to allow for remediation planning On-line diagnosis: The diagnosis does not carry official status, but you can obtain a letter of diagnosis, cost of $550.
www.dyscalculia.org/diagnosis.html

Understanding Dyscalculia Strategies to Help Students with Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu)

First step must be to identify a students strengths and weaknesses, understand how a student learns best Use tutoring outside the classroom, with a one-on-one instructor Provide a distraction free place to work Encourage repeated reinforcement and specific practice

Understanding Dyscalculia Strategies to Help Students with Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu)

Use graph paper to organize work and ideas Use different approaches to memorizing math facts, formulas, rules, etc. Practice estimating as a first step to solve a problem Encourage students to work hard to visualize math problems, draw pictures, look at diagrams, etc.

Understanding Dyscalculia Strategies to Help Students with Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu)

Encourage verbalizing while problem solving, this uses auditory skills which may be a strength Try to relate problems to real life experiences Provide uncluttered worksheets, preferably lined Use rhythm or music to help memorize math facts, etc.

Understanding Dyscalculia Strategies to Help Students with Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu)

If possible, let student take tests one-onone in the instructors presence. Allow extra time to complete work if needed Be aware if students become panicky, provide reassurance Monitor student progress on a frequent basis

Understanding Dyscalculia Strategies to Help Students with Dyscalculia


(www.ldonline.org, www.ld.org, www.as.wvu.edu)

Teach important concepts to mastery If needed, allow calculator use for basic operations to allow focus on problem solving BE PATIENT- Math can be a traumatic experience and is highly emotional because of past failures.

Understanding Dyscalculia
References
Adler, B. What is Dyscalculia?, 2001, www.dyscalculiainfo.org Attwood, Tony. Dyscalculia and Dyslexia, Two different issues, or part of the same problem, First and Best in Education, Ltd., www.firstandbest.co.uk The British Dyslexia Association, www.bdadyslexia.org.uk Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2000.

Understanding Dyscalculia
References
Geary, David C. Mathematics Disabilities, What We Know and Dont Know, www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/math_skills/geary_ math_dis.html Mercer, Cecil D. and Susan P. Miller, Educational Aspects of Mathematics Disabilities, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol 30, No. 1, pp 47-56, Jan/Feb 1997, www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/math_skills/mathld _mercer. html National Center for Learning Disabilities, www.ld.org

Understanding Dyscalculia
References
Strauss, Valerie. Trying to Figure Out Why Math is So Hard for Some, Theories Abound: Genetics, Gender, How Its Taught, Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2003, www.washingtonpost.com/wp_dyn/articles/A268262003dec1.html West Virginia University, www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/dyscalcula.html Wright, C. Christina. Learning Disabilities in Mathematics, www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/math_skills/math_1.html www.dys.dk/eng/dysk.html www.dyscalculia.org www.dyscalculia.org.uk www.dyscalculiainfo.org

Understanding Dyscalculia
To obtain a copy of this power point presentation go to: www.apsu.edu/haralsonk and click on Dyscalculia or email me at haralsonk@apsu.edu.

Thank you for your attention!