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APPLICATION OF MATERIAL BALANCE

PRESENTED BY: NORHANISAH BINTI ALIAS

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

Introduction Elements of material balance Components of Material balance equation Data requirements Data gathering Analysis and Results Conclusions

INTRODUCTION

The material balance is the total of fluid produce in the reservoir to the difference between the amount of fluid present at the initial reservoir and amount of fluid remaining at the final reservoir. The mass that cannot be destroyed or created. Application areas of material balance: hydrocarbon initially in place (HIIP) reservoir drive mechanisms identification production prediction reserve estimates Development planning

ELEMENTS OF MATERIAL BALANCE


The drive mechanisms are consists of: Solution gas drive
Associated gas

Gas cap drive


Saturated

Natural water drive


Aquifer support-system

Gravity drainage drive Compaction drive


High formation compressibility

ELEMENTS OF MATERIAL BALANCE Properties


Rock properties Porosity Permeability Formation compressibility Water saturation Fluid properties Water viscosity Oil viscosity Solution gas, Rs Water compressibility Gas FVF Oil FVF Water FVF Oil compressibility Gas gravity Oil gravity

Components of Material Balance Equation

Gas cap P
Oil + originally dissolved gas C

Volumes at initial pressure

Volumes at the reduced pressure

Underground R ) B ) + = B = N[(B oil + originally R )B ] Np (Bo + (Rp - withdrawal Wexpansion of Boi) + (Rsi dissolved gas (A) s g p w o s g + expansion of gas cap (B) + mNB (Bg / B 1) + reduction oi HCPVgidue to connate water in + (1+m) NBoil[(cwSwc+the)/(1-Svolume (C) expansion and decrease in cf pore wc)] P + WeBw + cumulative water infux (D)

MBE in Linear Form


F = Np (Bo + (Rp - Rs) Bg ) + WpBw (rb) Eo = (Bo Boi) + (Rsi Rs)Bg (rb/stb) Eg = Boi(Bg / Bgi 1) (rb/stb) Ef,w = (1+m) Boi([cwSwc+ cf])/[1-Swc] P(rb/stb) F = N (Eo + mEg + Ef,w ) + WeBw

Material Balance Equation Variables


Production data Np = cumulative oil produced (stb) Gp = cumulative gas produced (scf) Wp = cumulative water produced (stb) Rp = Gp/Np (scf/stb) = cumulative produced gas oil ratio Reservoir data Pi = initial pressure in the reservoir (psi) P = current pressure in the reservoir (psi) Swc = connate water saturation (fraction) Cf = formation compressibility (1/psi)

Material Balance Equation Variables


Fluid PVT data Bgi = initial gas volume factor (ft/scf) Bg = gas volume factor (ft/scf) Boi = initial oil volume factor (rb/stb) Bo = oil volume factor (rb/stb) Cw = compressibility of water (1/psi) Bw = formation volume factor of water (rb/stb) Rsi = solution gas oil ratio at initial pressure(scf/stb) Rs = solution gas oil ratio at current pressure (scf/stb)

OIL RESERVOIR
There are 2 methods to solve the material balance: Analytical method Graphical method Havlena-Odeh F/Et versus We/Et (F-We)/Et versus F known as Campbell F-We versus Et (F-We)/(Eo+Efw) versus Eg/(Eo+Efw)

Analytical Interpretation

GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION (OIL)

Havlena-Odeh

Campbell graph

N can be obtained when the straight line touch y-axis

GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION (OIL)

F/Et versus We/Et

F-We versus Et

GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION (OIL)


(F-We)/(Eo+Efw) versus Eg/(Eo+Efw)

Drive Mechanism

Production Prediction

Number of wells: 8 The estimate reserve: 96.9961 MMstb

Material Balance Equation for Gas Reservoir


For Gas Reservoir, G(Bg-Bgi) + We = GpBg +BwWp For volumetric gas reservoir, We = 0 Assuming water production is negligible, Wp = 0 The above equation can becomes: G(Bg-Bgi) = GpBg

Gas Reservoir without aquifer


By using the equation of real gas and substituting expression for Bg and Bgi into the equation, the following is obtained: G(Z/P) G(Zi/Pi) = Gp(Z/P) Rearranging it, the equation can become P/Z = Pi/Zi (1 Gp/G)

Graphical Interpretation (Gas)


P/Z method:

For volumetric depletion P/Z = (Pi/Zi)*(1-Gp/G) P/Z = 0, Gp = G

Gas Reservoir With Aquifer


The relation between Gp and p/z is not linear. Rearranging the equation, it can be obtained GBgi = (G Gp)Bg + We - BwWp When the water drive, We 0 And Efw = negligible The equation for gas reservoir with water influx, (GpBg+WpBw)/(Bg-Bgi) = G + We/(Bg-Bgi)

Graphical Interpretation (Gas)

Graphical Interpretation (Gas)


Graph without water influx

Graphical Interpretation (Gas)


Van Everdingen and Hurst Carter-Tracy

Graphical Interpretation (Gas)


Fetkovich semi steady state

CONCLUSION

Material balance equation is a tool that helps determine the reserves, recovery factor and drive mechanism. Can be applied to a variety of reservoirs, either with or without water influx.

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