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Nucleic Acid

Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids Structures of Nucleic Acids DNA Replication RNA and Transcription

Genetic material of cells


GENES units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES

Genetic Diversity
Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.

The Code of Life


The code of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.

A T C G T A T G C G G

Most Macromolecules are Polymers


Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid
Monomer

Cell Partsof aidscell;its packages Reviewmade the Name the organelle and giveprocessing Ribosome: site body Golgi Aparatus:where proteins are Nucleus: controlmodifies, sorts, contains Endoplasmic Reticulum: the in and
materials from (DNA) genetic materiallipids for proteins for export carbohydrates,the ERand storage in the cell or function. secretion outside the cell from the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Nucleus

Golgi Body

Animal

Ribosome

Plant

Central Dogma
Replication

DNA ---------------- RNA-------------- protein


transcription
translation

Central Dogma
Replication
DNA making a copy of itself
Making a replica

Transcription
DNA being made into RNA
Still in nucleotide language

Translation
RNA being made into protein
Change to amino acid language

Nucleic Acids
Store hereditary information
Contain information for making all the bodys proteins Two types exist --- DNA & RNA

Nucleotides
Nucleic acids consist of nucleotides that have a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate
Base

PO4

Sugar
nucleoside

1. Made of monomers called nucleotides; The nucleotides are made of phosphate (PO4), a monosaccharide, and a nitrogenous base. 2. There are four nitrogenous bases used by DNA: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine ( C ). RNA uses one called Uracil (U) rather than thymine. 3. RNA is a single strand, while DNA is made of 2 separate strands. They stick together by H-bonding between the N-bases.

Nucleic Acids- DNA & RNA

Nitrogen-Containing Bases
NH2 N N N N O O H N N H thymine (T) NH 2 N O N H cytosine (C) CH3 H O N N H uracil (U) O CH3 CH 3

H adenine (A) O H NH2 N N N N H guanine (G)

Sugars
HOCH2 O OH HOCH2 O OH

OH ribose

OH

OH

(no O)

deoxyribose

Nucleosides in DNA
Base Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) Sugar Deoxyribose Deoxyribose Deoxyribose Deoxyribose Nucleoside Adenosine Guanosine Cytidine Thymidine

Nucleosides in RNA
Base Sugar Nucleoside Adenine (A) ribose Adenosine Guanine (G) ribose Guanosine Cytosine (C) ribose Uracil (U) ribose

Cytidine Uridine

Example of a Nucleotide
NH2 N O OO
-

O O

P O CH2

OH deoxyctyidine monophosphate (dCMP)

Nucleotides in DNA and RNA


DNA dAMP dGMP dCMP dTMP RNA AMP GMP CMP UMP

Deoxyadenosine monophosphate Deoxyguanosine monophosphate Deoxycytidine monophosphate Deoxythymidine monophosphate

adenosine monophosphate guanosine monophosphate cytidine monophosphate uridine monophosphate

Structure of Nucleic Acids


Polymers of four nucleotides Linked by alternating sugar-phosphate bonds RNA: ribose and A, G, C, U DNA: deoxyribose and A,G,C,T
base base base base

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

nucleotide

nucleotide nucleotide nucleotide

Nucleic Acid Structure


NH2 N CMP O O
-

O O

P O CH2 O
-

3
OH N

NH2 N N O N AMP

3,5-phosphodiester bond

O O
-

O P O CH2

OH

Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides

Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T)

Phosphate group

Thymine (T)

Sugar (deoxyribose)

Phosphate
Base Sugar

Nucleotide

Nucleotide Nucleic acid monomer

Nucleic Acids
Polymer of ribofuranoside rings linked by phosphate ester groups. Each ribose is bonded to a base. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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What is located in the nucleus?

DNA Nucleus Chromosome

Nucleotide Nucleic Acid

What does the DNA of all these organisms have in common?

They all share a universal genetic code.

DNA

A HISTORY OF DNA
SEE p. 292-293 Discovery of the DNA double helix A. Frederick Griffith Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928)

B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. (1952)


C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklins X-ray. (1953)

Purpose of DNA
Why do we have DNA? -Tells the genetic information

DNA Structure
A DNA molecule consists of a double helix of two polynucleotide chains that are oriented antiparallel to each other The chains are held together by H-bonds between the bases of each nucleotide. Nucleotides consist of a sugar, a base, and a phosphate (Fig. 4.16). There are four bases in DNA: adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C). These bases exhibit complementary base pairing: A pairs with T G pairs with C.

Structure of DNA
-D-2-deoxyribofuranose is the sugar. 2 deoxy indicate lack of OH grp at 2 position Heterocyclic bases are cytosine, thymine (instead of uracil), adenine, and guanine. Linked by phosphate ester groups to form the primary structure. Sugar(Furanose) joind phospahatethrough C-3 and C-5 OH group Base-Suger is called nucleoside

What is a Nucleotide? 1. Phosphate Group


2. O 1. O 2. C H3 C C N N H CH 3. O

3. Nitrogen Base 2. 5-Carbon Sugar 2. 5-Carbon Sugar 1. Phosphate Group (Dexoyribose or Ribose) (Dexoyribose or Ribose) 3. 1. 3. Nitrogen Base

Nucleotides, too

P O

C H2
CH

HC

C H CH HO H O

C
O

Remember DNA

Nucleotides make up nucleic acid Are made up of monomers Double helix shape

sugar

nitrogen base

phosphate

Store genetic information Help make proteins Examples: DNA & RNA

Nucleotides
There are four nitrogen bases making up four different nucleotides.

Purines
N base

Adenine Guanine

A G

Pyrimidines

Thymine T

Cytosine C

Base Pairings

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Bases
Each DNA nucleotide has one of the following bases:
Adenine (A) Guanine (G)

Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)

Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
Adenine (A) Guanine (G)

DNA Backbone Structure


Alternate phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate ester bonds

Chargaffs Base Pair Rules


Adenine always bonds with thymine. A = T

Guanine always bonds with Cytosine. G C

Chargaff discovered that DNA contains the same amount of adenosine as thymine and the same amount of cytosine as guanine.

Erwin Chargaff

AA A AA A A

T TTT TT T C CC G G G

Pairingnucleotide? rule? DNApairing Nucleotides What is a base complementary would be the the
nucleotide pairing?
P
S N-b

Nucleotide

C G

Rule A to T C to G

A A T G

DNA
Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix

Base pair

Double helix

Double Helix of DNA


Two complementary polynucleotide chains are coiled into a helix. Described by Watson and Crick, 1953.

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5End

3End

DNA DOUBLE HELIX

ladder shaped molecule

3End

5End

Double Helix of DNA


DNA contains two strands of nucleotides H bonds hold the two strands in a doublehelix structure A helix structure is like a spiral stair case Bases are always paired as AT and G-C Thus the bases along one strand complement the bases along the other

DNA Double Helix


Base pairing by unique hydrogen bonds C - G and A - T pairs

DNA Replication
Semiconservative Model:
1. Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate, and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand.

DNA Template New DNA

Parental DNA

(1961)

Watson & Crick proposed

DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure.

3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON (which code for a specific AMINO ACID)


See p.303

AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.

Replication Quiz
A---? G---? C---? 2. When does replication occur? T---? 3. Describe how replication works. A---? G---? A---? 4. Use the complementary rule to G---? create the complementary C---? strand: A---? G---? T---?

1. Why is replication necessary?

Replication Quiz
A---T 1. Why is replication necessary? G---C So both new cells will have the correct C---G DNA T---A 2. When does replication occur? A---T During interphase (S phase). G---C 3. Describe how replication works. A---T Enzymes unzip DNA and G---C complementary nucleotides join C---G each original strand. A---T 4. Use the complementary rule to create the complementary strand: G---C T---A

DNA

Replication of DNA

Replication

Replication

DNA Replication

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DNA Replication
DNA replication creates an exact copy of a DNA molecule. Replication occurs during interphase of the cell cycle. Following replication, mitosis can occur.

Complementary Base Pairs


Two H bonds for A-T Three H bonds for G-C

Learning Check NA1


Write the complementary base sequence for the matching strand in the following DNA section:

-A-G-T-C-C-A-A-T-G-C

Solution NA1
Write the complementary base sequence for the matching strand in the following DNA section:

-A-G-T-C-C-A-A-T-G-C

-T-C-A-G-G-T-T-A-C-G-

DNA Replication
DNA in the chromosomes replicates itself every cell division Maintains correct genetic information Two strands of DNA unwind Each strand acts like a template New bases pair with their complementary base Two double helixes form that are copies of original DNA

Replication
Remember that DNA is self complementary Replication is semiconservative
One strand goes to next generation Other is new

Each strand is a template for the other


If one strand is 5 AGCT 3 Other is: 3 TCGA 5

DNA Replication
The enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes the process of DNA duplication. Hydrogen bonds between paired bases break and new nucleotides that are brought in by DNA polymerase base pair with the original strand. The resulting double-stranded DNA molecules contain one strand from the original molecule and one new complementary strand.

DNA Unwinds

G-C A-T C-G T-A

GACT-

-C -T -G -A

DNA Copied with Base Pairs


Two copies of original DNA strand

G-C A-T C-G T-A

G-C A-T C-G G-A

DNA Transcription
DNA can unzip itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand. See p.301 Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids.

DNA Translation
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
See p.304-305

We will discuss details of this on a later date

AMAZING DNA FACTS


DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!! It contains information equal to some 600,000 printed pages of 500 words each!!!
(a library of about 1,000 books)

What is RNA?
sugar nitrogen base

DNA must have a helper molecule. RNA stands for RiboNucleic Acid RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid made up of monomers called nucleotides

phosphate

RNA Ribonucleic Acid


Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or U)

Ribose sugar has an extra OH or hydroxyl group

It has the base uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)

Phosphate group

Uracil

Sugar (ribose)

RNA Nucleotides
A - Sugar (ribose) B - Phosphate C - Nitrogen base
sugar nitrogen base

phosphate

B
Name the parts of the nucleotide.

Cytosine pairs with Guanine

Rules for Base Pairing


C = G

Adenine pairs with Uracil

A = U
Notice that RNA has Uracil (not thymine)

Rules for Base Pairing


3 DNA strand

C=G A=U

A
RNA strand
5 DNA strand

Structure of RNA

=>

Ribonucleotides
Add phosphate at 5 carbon.

What is the function of RNA?


Carries DNAs message code Helps make protein Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

RNA
Nitrogen Base

Sugar (ribose) Phosphate Group

3-Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA) Takes info from nucleus to the ribosome. Contains the codon. Transfer RNA (tRNA) Brings amino acids with complementary base pairs to the mRna at the ribosome. Contains the anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Makes up one of the subunits of the ribosomes

RNA Codes for Amino Acids


The nitrogen bases in RNA code for amino acids. A triplet of nitrogen bases codes for one amino acid. The triplet is called a codon.

DNA VSDNA RNA- Nucleic acids RNA


Structure Sugar Nitrogen Bases Function Double Helix Deoxyribose Adenine thymine Cytosine Guanine Stores and transmits genetic information Single Strand Ribose Adenine Uracil Cytosine Guanine Messenger: takes info from nucleus to ribosome

Overall process of protein synthesis

transcription

translation

DNA

RNA

Protein

What does the chain of amino acids represent?


Threonine Arginine Glycine Proline Glycine Asparagine Proline Alanine

Polypeptide Chain A Protein

Genetic Code
The genetic code is preserved in the process of transcription followed by translation. Each of the twenty different amino acids is represented in the DNA molecule by a triplet of three nucleotides called a triplet code also known as the genetic code. For example CGT represents one amino acid while GCA represents another. Triplets of nucleotides also provide stop and start signals for protein synthesis.

Codonsamino acid. One codon codes for one


EX: ACG = amino acid (threonine) CGC = amino acid (arginine) GGA = amino acid (glycine)
Threonine ACG

Amino Acid
Asparagine AAC Proline CCA Glycine GGC

Proline CCG Alanine GCC

CGC Arginine Glycine GGA

protein

A sequence of amino acids is a protein.

Genetic Code
Nucleotides read in triplet codons
5 - 3

Each codon translates to an amino acid 64 possible codons


3 positions and 4 possiblities (AGCU) makes 43 or 64 possibilities Degeneracy or redundancy of code
Only 20 amino acids Implications for mutations

DNA

Genetic Code

Genetic Code
Not everything translated AUG is start codon
Find the start codon

Also are stop codons To determine aa sequence


Find start codon Read in threes Continue to stop codon