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S FLA

K AC HB

a. system concept; Figure 1.9 b. detailed layout; Antenna azimuth c. schematic; position control Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise d. functional block Control Systems Engineering, system: 2004 by John Wileydiagram rights reserved. Copyright & Sons. All

POLES, ZEROS & SYSTEM RESPONSE

Vibration System and Laplace Transform

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM

X X

X X

stable unstable unstable

stable

f(s)

G (s)

x(s)

Transfer Function

2 G ( s) = Ms 2+ f v s + K

Table 2.1 Laplace transform table

X X

stable unstable unstable

stable

Table 2.1 Laplace transform table

Figure 4.2 Effect of a real-axis pole upon transient response

K G ( s) = (s + )
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5

s 5

For free vibration system m x + c x + kx = 2


Not applicable Solution x(t ) - Vibration Trace Case#2 x = ACos (nt ) : whe n not damped =2
Case#2 x = Xe nt Cos (d t ) when lightly damped : Case#2 x = ( C2+ C2 ) e : t
n t

<2 >2

w hen critically damped = 2 when heavily damped

Case#2 x = C2 s2 + C2 s2t : e t e

Effect of System at TRANSIENT (before xh (t) goes to zero in Case #1, #2 and #3)

F(t)

ER MB D ME CE N RE OR IO F AT IBR V

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

Output C(s)
C ( s) = R( s) G ( s) 1 ( s + 2) A B C ( s) = = + s ( s + 5) s ( s + 5) where A = where B = ( s + 2) ( s + 5) ( s + 2) s
s 0

2 5 3 5 c(t ) = c p (t ) + ch (t )

s 5

Figure 4.1 a. System showing input and output; b. pole-zero plot of the system; c. evolution of a system response. Follow blue arrows to see the evolution of the response component generated by the pole or zero.

1.0

0.4 t

c(t ) = c p (t ) + ch (t )

Figure 4.4 a. First-order system; b. pole plot

1st. ORDER SYSTEM

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.5 First-order system response to a unit step

C ( s) = G ( s) R( s) a 1 C (s) = ( s + a) s 1 1 C (s) = s ( s + a) c(t ) = 1 e at

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

2st. ORDER SYSTEM

Figure 4.7 Second-order systems, pole plots, and step responses


Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

2st. ORDER SYSTEM

Figure 4.7 Second-order systems, pole plots, and step responses


Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

2st. ORDER SYSTEM

Figure 4.7 Second-order systems, pole plots, and step responses


Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.14 Second-order underdamped response specifications

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.8 Second-order step response components generated by complex poles

at

c(t ) =1 e nt Cosd t

Cosd t

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.10 Step responses for second-order system damping cases

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.13 Second-order underdamped responses for damping ratio values

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

c(t ) (1) 1 Cos (n t ) (2) 1 e nt Cos (d t ) (3) 1 e nt te nt (4) 1 e ( n +n 1 ) t e ( n n 1 ) t Assume constants equal or near unity.
2 2

Figure 4.11 Second-order response as a function of damping ratio

(1)

C ( s) G (s) =

n 2 s + 2 n s + n ( s + n ) + n 1 2 2 1 = 2 ( s + n ) 2 + n (1 2 )
2

(2)

For R ( s ) = 1 / s (1) When = 0 1 C ( s) = ( s + jn )( s jn ) (2) When 0 < < 1 C ( s) = K1 s + K 2 ( s + n + jn 1 2 )( s + n jn 1 2 ) s + 2n ( s + n ) 2 K1s + K 2 ( s + n + n 1)( s + n n 2 1)


2

(3)

(3) When = 1 C ( s) =

(4) When > 1 C ( s) =

(4)
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.17 Pole plot for an underdamped second-order system

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.17 Pole plot for an underdamped second-order system

G( s) = =

n
( s + n + j 1 2 n )( s + n j 1 2 n )

n ( s + d + jd )( s + d jd ) For step input 1 c (t ) = 1 e nt Cos (d t ) 1 2

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.17 Pole plot for an underdamped second-order system

G( s) = =

n
( s + n + j 1 2 n )( s + n j 1 2 n )

n ( s + d + jd )( s + d jd ) For step input 1 c (t ) = 1 e nt Cos (d t ) 1 2

1 2 Tan =
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.17 Pole plot for an underdamped second-order system

1 2 Tan =
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

e nt
Figure 4.19 Step responses of second-order underdamped systems as poles move: a. with constant real part; b. with constant imaginary part; c. with constant damping ratio

c(t ) = 1

1 1
2

n t

Cos (d t )

%OS = e

/ 1 2

100

1 2 Tan =
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.23 Component responses of a three-pole system: a. pole plot; b. component responses: nondominant pole is near dominant second-order pair (Case I), far from the pair (Case II), and at infinity (Case III)

EFFECT OF 3rd.POLE
bc s( s 2 + as + b)( s + c ) A Bs + C D C (s) = + 2 + s s + as + b ( s + c) C (s) = where A = 1 ca 2 c 2 a bc C= 2 c + b ca when c A =1 B = 1 C = a D=0 ca c 2 B= 2 c + b ca D= b c 2 + b ca

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.24 Step responses of system T1(s), system T2(s), and system T3(s)

24.542 s + 4 s + 24.542 24.542 T2 ( s ) = ( s + 10)( s 2 + 4 s + 24.542) 24.542 T3 ( s) = 2 ( s + 3)( s + 4 s + 24.542) T1 ( s) =


2

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

T ( s) =
Figure 4.25 Effect of adding a zero to a two-pole system

( s + a) A B = + ( s + b)( s + c) s + b s + c (b + a ) /( b + c) (c + a ) /(c + b) = + s+b s+c

when a >> b & c a becomes a simple gain a 1 /( b + c ) 1 /( c + b) T ( s) = a + = ( s + a )( s + b) s+b s+a

Let C(s) has no zero. Adding zero at -a: (s+a)C(s) = sC(s) + aC(s) If a is large aC(s) will dominate. If a is small derivative sC(s) will contribute to bigger overshoot.

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.26 Step response of a non minimum-phase system

(s-a)C(s) = sC(s) - aC(s)

When a is negative and small. The derivative effect sC(s) will dominate in the opposite direction. Aircraft is a non-inimumphase system because it initially veer left when commanded to steer right.

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.27 Nonminimum-phase electrical circuit

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.28 Step response of the nonminimum-phase network of Figure 4.27 (c(t)) and normalized step response of an equivalent network without the zero (-10co(t))

(s-a)C(s) = sC(s) - aC(s)

#2 #3

#1

C (s) =

( s 10) 1 1 = + 10 = sC0 ( s ) 10C0 ( s) s( s + 10) s + 10 s ( s + 10) 1 1 1 where C0 ( s ) = c0 (t ) = + e 10t s( s + 10) 10 10


#1 #2 #3

dc (t ) Therefore c(t ) = 0 10c0 (t ) = e 10 t + 1 e 10 t = 1 2e 10t dt

POLE ZERO CANCELLATION


T (s) = K (s + z) ( s + p3 )( s 2 + as + b)

Example : C1 ( s) = 26.25( s + 4) s ( s + 3.5)( s + 5)( s + 6) 1 3.5 3.5 1 = + + s s + 5 s + 6 s + 3.5

C2 ( s ) =

26.25( s + 4) s ( s + 4.01)( s + 5)( s + 6) 0.87 5.3 4.4 0.033 = + + + s s + 5 s + 6 s + 4.01 0.87 5.3 4.4 = + + s s+5 s+6
Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.