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Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Dr Diane Aston Training and Education Executive The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining

All of the materials we use around us come from natural resources that are found somewhere in the Earths crust.

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

First we have to find them...


Geologists,

geophysicists and geochemists explore the globe and find the pockets of useful natural resources. Assess whether the deposit is a viable resource. Viable resources are called reserves.
Dr Diane Aston Materials in Action

Then we have to get them out...


Mining engineers

decide on the best way to get the useful natural resources out of the ground. Surface extraction in quarries. Underground extraction from mines. Pumping from below ground.
Dr Diane Aston Materials in Action

Then we extract the useful stuff...


Minerals engineers use a

range of physical and chemical techniques to separate the useful material from its natural resource. Physical processes include crushing and grinding, flotation and magnetic separation. Chemical reaction used to isolate particular materials.
Dr Diane Aston Materials in Action

Processing

Structure

Properties

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

We can make hundreds of thousands of materials from the elements; we split these up into four main groups.

The Chemists Perspective

Classes of materials
Metals Polymers

Ceramics

Composites

Structural and functional materials

Characterising materials

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Improvements in our technology have gone hand in hand with the discovery of new materials or improvements in our understanding of the ones we have already.

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Materials for jet engines

Materials for aircraft

Materials for cars

Materials for sports equipment

Materials for body parts

Materials for packaging

Materials for communication

Smart materials

Nanotechnology

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Summary
Materials play a vital role in our modern society. Without new materials our technology would stand

still. Materials Scientists and Engineers play a vital role in developing new materials and improving the technology we rely on. Please take the materials that are used around you a little bit less for granted!

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

diane.aston@iom3.org www.iom3.org www.iom3.org/sas

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Understanding processing
Materials are

processed, formed, shaped or manufactured to make the products that we take for granted. Processing generally involves the application of heat and force.

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Casting processes
Pour molten material

into a mould to make a component close to its final shape:


Injection moulding and

die casting
Sand casting and

investment casting
Continuous casting

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Forming processes
HOT WORKING above

about two thirds of the melting point. COLD WORKING below two thirds of the melting point. Rolling, extrusion, drawing, forging used to make wide variety of shapes.
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Finishing processes
Machining used to: Remove waste Drill holes Improve surface finish Traditional cutting tools

are very hard (tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, PCD, tool steels). Modern methods include laser cutting, electrical discharge machining and water cutting.
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Materials in Action

Understanding structure
All materials are comprised of atoms.

How are the atoms bonded together to form

molecules or crystals? How are the molecules or crystals arranged?

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The number of electrons in the outer shell and their distance from the nucleus affects the type of bonding and this in turn affects some of the materials properties. Aim is to have an outer full electron shell.
Covalent Ionic Metallic Weak bonds Mixture and compounds

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Covalent bonding
Characterised by atoms

sharing pairs of electrons to achieve a full outer shell. Tend to be poor electrical and thermal conductors and have relatively low melting points. Can form single molecules or large macromolecules.
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Bonding

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Covalent bonding
Electrons have the

same negative charge and since like charges repel each other they try to be as far away from each other as possible. This leads to molecules with specific fixed shapes.
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Bonding

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Ionic bonding
Characterised by

electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in order to get a full outer electron shell. Tend to conduct electricity in liquid state and have relatively high melting points. Can form large crystal lattices.
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Ionic bonding
Ionic crystal lattices can take on a number of different

geometries depending on the relative size of the ions. There are 14 possible crystal structures.
Sodium chloride adopts a face centred cubic structure Caesium chloride adopts a body centred cubic structure

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Materials in Action

Bonding

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Metallic bonding
Characterised by sharing

of free electrons among a lattice of positively charged nuclei. Tend to be good electrical and thermal conductors. Form close packed lattices due to nondirectional nature of the bonding.
Dr Diane Aston Materials in Action

Metallic bonding
Different ways of laying up planes of close packed atoms. Three main equilibrium crystal structures but others are

possible.
Hexagonal close packed

Face centred cubic

Body centred cubic

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Bonding

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Weak bonds
Van der Waals forces
Intermolecular force Sum of attractive and

Hydrogen bonding
Interaction of hydrogen

repulsive forces between molecules. Important in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology and surface science.

atom with an atom of oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine from another molecule or within the same molecule. Reason that water expands slightly as it freezes.

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Materials in Action

Bonding

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Mixtures and compounds


Compound
Made from two or more chemical elements held together in a particular spacial arrangement by chemical bonds.
Properties are different to those of

Mixture
Made from two or more chemical substances by mechanical means (e.g. stirring, shaking, melting).
Properties closely related and dependent on ingredients.

the constituent elements.


Elements are present in a specific and constant ratio water is always two hydrogen and one oxygen.

Ingredients can be present in any ratio.


Ingredients can be separated by mechanical means (e.g. filtering, evaporation, magnetism).

Elements can only be joined or separated by a chemical reaction.


Bonding Home

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Materials in Action

It is important to know how the individual molecules or crystals in a material arrange themselves with regards to each other.

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Crystalline materials
In a crystalline material the atoms or molecules arrange

themselves in a regular way and this pattern is constant throughout the material. A monocrystalline material exhibits long range order. In a polycrystalline material the atoms in each individual crystallite or grain have the same structure but the orientation varies between adjacent grains.

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Non-crystalline materials
Amorphous materials only demonstrate short range

ordering. Glassy materials show no ordering at all.

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Materials in Action

Atoms
Central nucleus

containing protons and neutrons which give the atoms its mass. Electron cloud surrounds nucleus and does not contribute towards mass. Number of protons and electrons is equal.
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Materials in Action

Understanding properties
Physical and chemical properties: Melting and boiling point, density, corrosion resistance, toxicity. Structural or mechanical properties: Strength, toughness, hardness, stiffness (Youngs Modulus), ductility, malleability, fatigue and creep resistance. Functional properties: Magnetic properties, thermal properties, electrical properties, optical properties, Smart behaviour
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Metals
Most of the elements in the Periodic Table are

metallic. Metallic materials tend to:


have good mechanical properties be ductile, malleable, sonorous and lustrous be good electrical and thermal conductors

Wide range of densities, melting points and corrosion

resistance.

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Materials in Action

Alloys
Dont tend to make things out of pure metals. Making metal 100% pure can be difficult. Having some kind of impurity can improve

properties. Alloys are made by mixing different metals and nonmetals together in different proportions. An infinite number of alloys with exactly the right properties.

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Substitutional alloys
Formed when the

solvent and solute metals have about the same atomic radius. Slightly larger or smaller atoms introduce strain into the crystal lattice which provides strengthening.

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Materials in Action

Interstitial alloys
Formed when the

solvent atoms are much larger then the solute atoms. Solute sits in the gaps in the lattice and make it more difficult for the planes to slide across each other.

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Materials in Action

Alloy composition - simple


Simple alloys are made by mixing just two metals

together. By changing relative proportions of constituents can alter properties. For example:
Brass mixture of copper and zinc Bronze mixture of copper and tin Solder mixture of lead and tin

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Materials in Action

Alloy composition complex


More complex alloys involve the addition of more than one ingredient. Each ingredient contributes towards improving properties in a particular way. Mixture of substitutional and interstitial

ingredients. For example:


Steel is Fe and C with other elements added to give

particular properties such as Nb, Ti, N, Ni, Cr, Mn, B, Si Ni-based superalloys contain Cr, Mo, Mn, Al, Fe, B, Re, Ru
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Polymers
Tend to be covalently bonded organic compounds

consisting of large molecules of repeated structural units. Poly many, mer parts Includes many natural and synthetic materials. Tend to have relatively low melting points and densities, electrical and thermal insulators.

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Materials in Action

Polymers
Molecules tend to have long backbone with side

groups coming off. Geometry of molecules dictates whether polymer will be crystalline or amorphous. Can be split into three subgroups:
Thermosoftening materials Thermosetting materials Elastomers

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Thermosoftening polymers
Often called thermoplastics, they can be melted and

shaped by the application of heat. Consist of long, covalently bonded molecules held together by weaker Van der Waals forces. Can be elastic and flexible or glassy and brittle. Include PE, PP, PS, PC, PVC, PMMA.

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Thermosoftening polymers
Non-renewable materials

originating from oil. Can be recycled provided they are sorted. Very durable materials, lasting for many hundreds of years without degradation. Many used in low-tech, high volume applications such as packaging, textiles and seating.
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Thermosetting polymers
Molecules bonded together by cross links to create a

continuous three dimensional lattice. Once a thermoset has solidified in a particular shape it cannot be remelted. Tend to be stronger than thermoplastics but more brittle. Include melamine, epoxy resin, bakelite, vulcanized rubber.

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Elastomers
Can be thermosoftening or thermosetting.

Generally consist of cross-linked 3D networks.


Characterised by ability to extend considerably

without plastic deformation. Include natural rubber and synthetic rubbers such as nitrile, butyl, polybutadiene, silicone rubber.

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Materials in Action

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Ceramics
Inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action

of heat and subsequent cooling. Can be crystalline or amorphous. Bonding can be ionic, covalent or a mixture. Can have very high melting points. Strong and stiff in compression but brittle. Can be electrical and thermal insulators or conductors.

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Four groups of ceramics


Structural ceramics
Clay-based materials Bricks, pipes, tiles

Engineering ceramics
Used for their thermal, electrical or impact properties
Oxides, nitrides, carbides

Refractories
Kiln linings, fire retardants, crucibles

Whitewares
Earthenware, stoneware, porcelain for tableware, sanitaryware,

pottery and tiles.


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Composites
Made by mixing two materials from the other groups

together. New material has superior properties to constituent materials. Defined by the matrix or background material and the reinforcement material. By changing size, type, shape and amount of reinforcement the properties can be controlled.

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Polymer matrix composites


Matrix can be a thermoset such as epoxy resin or

thermoplastic such as PP. Reinforcement can be in the form of glass, carbon or Kevlar fibres. Properties can be controlled by changing type, size, shape and amount of reinforcement. Strong, lightweight materials but expensive to manufacture.

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Materials in Action

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Materials in Action

Structural & functional materials


Structural materials
Been using these materials

Functional materials
Started to make an impact

for thousands of years. Chosen for their structural or mechanical properties:


Strength

on our technology in the last 50 years or so. Chosen for their functional properties:
Optical properties
Electrical properties Thermal properties Magnetic properties Smart materials
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Toughness
Hardness Stiffness

Used in the construction of

everything around us.


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Materials in Action

Characterising structure

Characterising properties

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Characterising structure
Characterise structure in many ways:
Measure grain size
Measure particles Measure degree of crystallinity

Measure relative amounts of different constituents

To do this we have to be able to observe the material

on many levels.

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Macrostructure
This is the scale that

we live at. Can look at the material with the naked eye or use a magnifying glass or stereomicroscope. Typical magnification is x2 to x10 and observing at a scale of a few millimetres.
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Microstructure using light


Optical microscopy,

using either transmitted light or reflected light can be used to look at structure on a micrometre scale. Typical magnification of up to a few hundred times.

240m

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Microstructure using electrons


Scanning electron

microscopy used to look at magnifications of up to a few thousand times. Useful for looking at surfaces as get more appreciation of topography. Sample needs to conduct electricity so may need to coat in gold or carbon.
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Looking even smaller...


Transmission electron

microscopy can be used to observe materials on the nanoscale. Useful for characterising defects and particles in materials. Use thin films or carbon replicas.
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Looking smaller still...


Scanning tunnelling

microscope is used for imaging surfaces at the atomic level and can achieve a resolution around 0.01 to 0.1 nanometres. Atomic force microscopy newer and even more powerful.
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Analysing structure and composition


X-ray diffraction can be

used to determine crystal structure in metals. Various spectroscopy techniques can be used to analyse chemical composition.

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Materials in Action

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Dr Diane Aston

Materials in Action

Characterising properties
A range of techniques can be employed to quantify

properties Mechanical testing to quantify structural properties is of great importance to Materials Engineers

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Materials in Action

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Quantifying strength
The Tensile Test: Uses standard test specimen which has a section with a constant cross section gauge length. Test piece is clamped into the machine and a load applied steadily until the specimen fails.
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Tensile test results


CERAMIC
Yield point Ultimate tensile strength

Stress

METAL

POLYMER
Stiffness

Strain

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Quantifying toughness
The Impact Test: Uses standard test specimen with a notch on one side. Sample is placed in machine and hit with a swinging hammer. Measure energy required to break the sample at different temperatures.
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Impact test results


Materials experience a

Temperature

change in behaviour from ductile to brittle at a particular temperature (DBTT) Behaviour varies with crystal structure. Other factors also affect toughness.

Energy

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Quantifying hardness
The Vickers Hardness Test A small pyramidshaped diamond is pressed into the surface of a polished sample under a given load. Measure indent to get hardness number.
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Materials in Action

Materials operate in and environment of extreme stress and temperature in this safety critical application but jet engines are beautiful pieces of engineering.

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Materials in Action

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How a turbofan works

Fan

Compressor

Turbine

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Materials for the fan


Blade design was limiting

factor in jet engine size. Fan diameter 2-3 metres. Blades need to be lightweight, strong and stiff. Titanium blades made by super-plastic forming and diffusion bonding. Blades have a hollow, corrugated cross section.
Materials in Action

This photograph is reproduced with the permission of Rolls-Royce plc, copyright Rolls-Royce plc 2010

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Engine

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Materials for the compressor


Air entering the

compressor is squeezed causing to speed up and heat up. When it exits the high pressure compressor it is at around 600C. Compressor blades made from titanium as it is strong, light and able to operate at 600C.
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Engine

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Materials for the turbine


Forced rotation of turbine

drives rest of engine. Operate under extremes of temperature and pressure. Made from nickel-based superalloy. Blades attach to disc with fir tree root. Blades have in-built cooling system.
Materials in Action

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Engine

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Materials in Action

We are always looking for better materials to build bigger aircraft that can fly further and faster and carry more people more efficiently. Minimising weight is paramount!

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Materials in Action

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Traditional aircraft materials


Wood, canvas and piano

wire have been replaced! Undercarriage made from very high strength steels. Engines made from complex alloys. Frame and skin made from aluminium alloys. Constant driving force to decrease weight...
Materials in Action

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Modern aircraft materials


Metallic materials

superceeded by modern composites. Strong, tough, stiff and lightweight. About one third of A380 made from composites: GLARE and CFRC Fuselage of B787 is all CFRC.
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Materials in Action

We all want more efficient cars. Advanced materials are helping to drive down weight and improve safety standards. Materials are also vital and in the development of new fuel technologies
Cars Fuels

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Materials for car structures


Body panels have changed

from steel to aluminium to polymer and composite materials. Polymeric materials used in trims, bumpers and upholstery. Body frame made from steels or aluminium. Engines contain range of materials including steels and aluminium alloys
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Cars

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Materials for fuels


Traditionally fossil fuels

have been used. Alternatives such as biodiesel from used cooking oil and bioethanol from sugar beet now available. Electric cars rely on battery technology. Hybrid cars now available.
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Cars

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Hydrogen fuel cells


Proton exchange membrane

fuel cell.
Anode and cathode have

channels etched into surface to ensure gas is dispersed fully.


Proton exchange membrane is

separates anode and cathode.


Platinum catalyst facilitates

reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.

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Materials in Action

Cars

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Materials in Action

Improvements in sporting performance tend to be down to the introduction of new materials rather than the athletes.
Cycling Pole vaulting Tennis

Swimming

Javelin

Protection Home

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Materials in Action

Materials for cycling


Bicycle frame design

has changed little since the 1880s. Steel used for most everyday bikes, but aluminium and titanium alloys used for higher specs. Carbon fibre composite used in competition cycles.
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Sport

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Materials for pole vaulting


Poles originally made

from hickory and then bamboo. Modern poles made from carbon and glass fibres embedded in an epoxy resin matrix. Composite poles are efficient at storing and releasing energy as they bend and then straighten.
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Sport

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Materials for tennis


Originally made from solid then

laminated wood.
Aluminium frames introduced

in 1970s.
Modern racquets made from

CFC with fibres laid up to give optimum properties. Bigger head means more power.
Carbon nanotubes now used

to give even greater performance.

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Sport

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Materials for swimming


As swimmer moves through

the water three types of drag are created. Frictional drag accounts for most of this (up to 29%).
Speedo Fastskin suit can

reduce drag by 4%, the Tyr Aquashift suit claims to reduce drag by upto 10%.
Fabric is covered in pattern

which mimics shark skin.


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Sport

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Materials for javelin


IAAF rules state that javelin

must be 2.6-2.7m and >800g for men or 2.2-2.3m and >600g for women. Centre of mass moved forwards by 4cm to make the nose heavy and reduce possibility of it being thrown out of the stadium. Made from steel or aluminium alloys.

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Materials in Action

Sport

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Materials for protection


Traditional materials

are bulky and can restrict natural movement. D3o is lightweight and flexible but its stiffness is strain rate dependent. Absorbs impact energy to protect the body.
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Sport

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Materials in Action

Biomaterials are being used alongside and inside the body to repair and replace broken or worn out body parts.
Hips Blood vessels Lenses Limbs Tissue engineering Home

Knees

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Materials in Action

Materials for hip replacements


Artificial hips have

changed since their introduction. Surgical steel and nylon replaced by UHMWPE and other alloys. Ceramic coatings can be used instead of bone cement.
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Body parts

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Materials for artificial knees


Made from similar

materials to artificial hips. Recoat natural joint by covering bottom of femur and top of tibia. Polymer plate acts as man-made cartilage.

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Materials in Action

Body parts

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Materials for vascular grafts


Vascaular grafts can be

sewn in or inserted into a blood vessel to provide reinforcement or repair. Made from woven polyester fabric.

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Materials in Action

Body parts

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Materials for prosthetic limbs


Early examples made from

wood. Carbon fibre composites, lightweight alloys and polymer foams are used to create prostheses that look and behave like the limbs they are replacing. Modern prosthetic limbs incorporate electronics and are designed with increased functionality.

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Materials in Action

Body parts

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Materials for intraocular lenses


Used to replace the

lens of cataract patients. Inserted into eye through a small incision. Made from PMMA.

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Materials in Action

Body parts

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Materials for tissue engineering


Use of man-made materials

as a scaffold on which to grown natural tissues. Man-made scaffold, such as PLA, PCL PGA, dissolves over time. Possible to grow simply structure such as skin, vascular grafts and bladders. More complex organs may be possible in the future.
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Body parts

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Materials in Action

Modern functional materials have revolutionised our communications industry.

Processing

Transmitting

Storing

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Materials for processing data


Microchips made from

silicon. Silicon is the second most common element in the Earths crust. Very pure silicon is processed in order to change its structure and properties. Can produce chips with millions of electronic components.
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Comms

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Processing silicon
Structure modified on a

microstructural level: polycrystalline to monocrystalline. Single crystals are sliced to produce very thin wafers. Structure is modified on an atomic level by doping to make it easier for electrons to flow through the structure.
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Comms

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Materials for storing data


Before the advent of the

printing press the only way to store information was to manually copy manuscripts. Early computers used punched cards. Magnetic storage on tapes and discs has a higher storage density and allows re-recording. Optical technology is used for CDs and DVDs
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Comms

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Materials for storing data


Now possible to store

large amounts of data on a very small drive. Hard discs use magnetic storage technology on a much smaller scale than cassette or video tapes.

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Materials in Action

Comms

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Materials for transmitting data


Traditional copper

cables are being replaced by optical fibres with a much greater data capacity. Light is used to transmit signals over larger distances with less loss of signal.

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Materials in Action

Comms

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Materials in Action

Packaging must fulfil a large number of criteria, from looking good to extending shelf life. Materials are chosen to meet the needs of the particular product.
Paper & board

Metals

Plastics

Glass

Modern

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Metal packaging
Two-piece cans, three

piece cans, tubes, trays, foil and closures. Materials used include tinplate, tin free steel and aluminium. In UK 8 billion food cans and 9 billions drinks cans per year. Packaging can be sorted and recycled.
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Packaging

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Plastics packaging
Lightweight, durable

packaging materials. Use thermoplastics such as LDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, PVC. Used for bottle, trays, tubes, tubs, closures and cushioning. Starch-based biopolymers being developed.
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Packaging

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Glass packaging
Traditional packaging

material early vessels date to 1500BC. Inert, rigid, heat resistant and recyclable, but heavy and brittle.

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Materials in Action

Packaging

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Paper and board packaging


Wide range of papers

and boards used in packaging. Raw materials is cellulose fibre from wood, straw or cotton or recycled paper. Making folded cartons requires many stages.

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Materials in Action

Packaging

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Modern packaging
Active packaging used to

extend shelf life by trapping the gases produced as food goes off, controlling humidity or providing a protective atmosphere. Intelligent packaging indicates a change in internal or external conditions. Enhanced traceability with RFID tags.
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Packaging

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Materials in Action

The term Smart Materials was introduced in the 1960s to group together a group of metals, polymers, ceramics and composites with some unusual properties.

Metals

Polymers

Ceramics

Composites

Other

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Materials in Action

Many alloys are available but Nitinol most commonly used. It is made from nickel and titanium. The Ni-Ti ratio controls the memory temperature and the useful property can be changed by changing processing conditions.
Superelastic Two way One way

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Smart

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Superelastic behaviour
Very flexible materials,

can be bent without suffering permanent deformation. Used in flexible spectacle frames, mobile phone aerials and under-wired bras. Useful in surgical tools which need to be kinkresistant.
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SMA

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Two way temperature memory


Different structures

above and below memory temperature. Change over small temperature range. Change in structure generates a force, so can be used as a switch in a temperature controlled circuit.
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SMA

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One way temperature memory


Remember a memory

shape above or below the memory temperature . Can be bent to shape during use and then reset by heating / cooling. Trained by heating and then quenching. Can go through thousands of cycles.
SMA Home

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Materials in Action

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Materials in Action

A number of different types of smart polymers which exhibit useful behaviour

Thermo

Photo

Electro

SMP

Visco

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Materials in Action

Smart

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Thermochromic polymers
Appear to change colour

at a given temperature. Based on polymers called leucodyes or liquid crystals. Change occurs because molecules are changing position. Available as pigments, paints and inks and used in many everyday applications
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Polymers

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Photochromic polymers
Appear to change

colour with a change in the level of UV light. Used for coatings on spectacle lenses. Can also get photochromic paints and pigments.

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Polymers

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Electrochromic polymers
Liquid crystal- based

materials that change from transparent to opaque (or tinted) at the flick of a switch. Molecules align in the presence of an electrical field and then become randomly oriented as it disperses.
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Polymers

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Shape memory polymers


SMP return to their

memory shape when heated to their memory temperature. Materials tend to be thermosetting polymers that can be reinforced with fibres.

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Polymers

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Strain and shear rate sensitive polymers


The viscosity or stiffness

of some polymers changes depending on how quickly they are deformed or how easy it is for them to flow. Polyborosiloxane (Silly Putty) is a good example and is used in a number of commercial applications.
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Polymers

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Materials in Action

Probably the oldest group of smart materials. No longer simple natural materials; they are complex man-made minerals with a crystal structure designed to give the most exaggerated effect.
Piezo Pyro Ferro

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Smart

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Piezoelectric ceramics
First discovered in 1880 in quartz. Now lead zirconate

titanate (PZT) most used. Generate an electrical current when pressure is applied to change shape. Change shape when an electrical current is applied. Found a wide variety of uses:

Microphones and guitar pick ups Car air-bag actuators Linear motors Damping systems, e.g. in skis Flat panel speakers Energy harvesting
Materials in Action

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Ceramics

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Piezoelectric ceramics
This actuator consists

of 300 layers of piezoelectric ceramic. It is designed to change in length by 1.5m per millimetre of its length. Used to control the amount of diesel injected in to the cylinder to optimise fuel efficiency.
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Ceramics

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Pyroelectric ceramics
Closely related to piezoelectric

materials but in this case the electrical potential is produced by a change in temperature rather than shape. As the temperature changes the ions in the structure move and the material becomes polarised thus producing and electrical potential. Most common application is in heat sensing intruder alarms and thermal imaging cameras.
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Ceramics

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Ferroelectric ceramics
These are spontaneously polarised and the direction of

polarisation can be switched by the application of an external field. Their behaviour can be compared to ferromagnetic materials. Vital to our electronics-led society as they can be used for capacitors and memory cells. These materials are used to make RAM for computers and radio frequency identity cards. These applications use a thin film of ferroelectric materials as these allow high field to be generated to switch the polarity, with the application of only a moderate voltage.

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Ceramics

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Materials in Action

Quantum tunnelling composite (QTC) is made of a fine nickel powder dispersed in a polymer resin.

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Materials in Action

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QTC useful properties


With no applied pressure

it is a near perfect electrical insulator. If enough pressure applied it is a reasonable good conductor. Electrical resistance of varies with applied pressure in a predictable way.

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QTC - applications
Sports
Fencing jacket touch senor Training shoes pressure analysis

Functional textiles Consumer electronics


Mouse buttons and games controllers Wii board and dance mats Flexible piano keyboard and drums Flexible qwerty keyboard

Medicine
Blood pressure cuff tension check Respiration monitor Functional prothetic limbs

Industrial
Variable speed controllers for tools Sensing for robotics

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QTC how it works


Metal particles are not

smooth spheres, rather they have a very spinkey surface Electrons can jump between the points to allow a current to flow Quantum Tunnelling

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Smart fluids
Magneto-rheological fluids

consist of fine iron particles suspended in a liquid such as glycerol or vegetable oil. In the a absence of a magnetic field the material behaves as a liquid. When a magnetic field is applied the particles in the materials align and the liquid becomes solid. Used in braking and damping systems.
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Other smart materials


Magnetostrictive materials are similar to piezoelectric materials but they change shape in a magnetic field. Terfenol-D is one material. They are used in:
Sensors and actuators Ultrasound and sonar equipment Hearing aids
Bar contracts if field applied Base state of material Bar expands if field applied

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Study of the design, characterisation, manipulation, production and application of materials on the nanoscale.

Definition

In nature

Coatings

Composites

Future

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What is nanotechnology?
Football (22cm) Flea (1mm) Hair (80m) Red blood cell (7m) Virus (150nm) Buckyball (0.8nm)

1m

10-1m

10-2m

10-3m

10-4m

10-5m

10-6m

10-7m

10-8m

10-9m

10-10m

1m

1mm

1m

100nm

1nm

100nm

80nm

60nm

40nm
Sunscreen TiO2 (35nm)

20nm
DNAstrand (2nm)

1nm

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All a matter of scale


Materials have unusual properties on the nanoscale

because of the huge surface area.


Cube edge length 1 metre 0.5 metre 1 centimetre I millimetre 1 micrometre 1 nanometre Number of cubes in a cubic metre 1 8 1,000,000 1,000,000,000 1018 1027 Total surface area (m2) 6 12 600 6,000 6,000,000 6,000,000,000

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Macroscale versus nanoscale


On a 1cm3 of material around 10 in 1 million atoms

are on the surface. On a 1nm3 of material 4 out of 5 atoms are on the surface.
Material Aluminium Copper Macroscale property Stable Opaque Nanoscale property Combustible Transparent

Gold
Platinum Silicon

Solid at room temperature


Inert Insulator

Liquid at room temperature


Reactive Conductor

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Creatures and plants have evolved to exploit materials on the nanoscale in the most efficient way.

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Gecko grip
Gecko is able to run upside

down. Has millions of nanoscale hairs on each toe which are individually attracted to the surface by Van der Waals forces. When combined these forces are sufficient to allow superb grip. Could still cling on carrying a 200 times its own weight!
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Stenocara beetle
Lives in the Namib Desert

where water is scarce. Water from atmosphere condenses on bumps on its back. Rest of body is hydrophobic so the water is channelled directly into the beetles mouth and none is wasted.

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Anti-glare eyes
Many moths have anti-

reflective coatings on their eyes. These surfaces are very rough on the nanoscale and prevent light reflecting Coating makes it more difficult for predators to see them.

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All the colours of the rainbow


Nanolayers and nanoparticles

used to give the effect of colour. Butterfly wings appear brightly coloured. Mother of Pearl on shells has a pearlescent appearance. Amazing sunsets caused by scattering of light.

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Coatings can be applied to provide a number of benefits including scratch resistance and surface smoothing.

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Superhydrophobic coatings
Water repellent materials!
Textile coatings Self-cleaning windows
Nanoparticle Water forms droplets on Dirt

Droplet

the surface which run off carrying dirt with them.


Textile

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Scratch resistant coatings


Nanoparticles of silica

or alumina can be added to paint for scratch resistance. Seven layers of paint are applied and top coat of lacquer contains nanoparticles.

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Anti-glare and anti-reflective coatings

Mimic moths eyes.

Reduce light reflection

and improve light transmission. Spectacle lenses Computer screens Car instrument panels

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Pollution-reducing coatings
TiO2 in coating acts as

a catalyst to break down NOX and SOX pollution. Transparent coating. Could coat whole cities to reduce smog.

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UV barrier coatings
Sunscreens use TiO2

particles to stop bad UV light from damaging the skin whilst letting the tanning radiation through. Traditional sunscreens appear white on the skin. If nanoparticles are used they scatter the light in such a way that they appear transparent
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Colour-effect coatings
Colour without pigment

Examples from ancient

Lycergus Cup Roman dating to 400AD 400ppm gold and 300ppm silver 70nm nanoparticles

civilisations Modern examples Perfume bottles Car paints Consumer goods

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Coatings to fill surface defects


Nanoparticles can sink

in to small surface defects to give a smoother appearance.


Paints

Polishes
Face creams Tooth paste

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Nanoparticles are added to other materials to provide reinforcement, strengthening and other useful properties.

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Barrier properties
Nanoparticles of clay

added to tennis ball materials to slow the diffusion of oxygen. Balls can be used for longer. Hydrophobic coating on surface too.

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Antimicrobial properties
Antimicrobial properties

of silver know since ancient times. Nanoparticles can be added to textiles to provide antimicrobial properties:
Wound dressings Clothing

Nanoparticles can be

added to polymers too.


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The future of nanotechnology


New applications are being found all the time and it is

likely that nanotechnology will impact all areas of our lives:


In medicine to deliver drugs and aid healing In communications to increase processing speeds In transport to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency In construction to build longer, lighter bridges

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The Material Map


H Li Be Na Mg K Ca Sc Ti Rb Sr Y V B C N P O S He F Ne Cl Ar Al Si

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr I Xe

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te

Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir

Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Uuq Uuh Uuo

Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub

La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Ac Th Ps U Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
The Materials Engineers Perspective