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MIMO Channel Modelling For Indoor Environment

Presented by: Hussain Bohra

Outline
Introduction

MIMO System Overview


MIMO Technology: Benefits MIMO System: Transmitter & Receiver MIMO Channel Models MIMO Channel Matrix Formulation Measurement-Based Channel Modeling Multi-User MIMO

Introduction
Multiple Input Multiple Output(MIMO) systems are basically designed

to achieve high data rate transmissions using spatial diversity technique with no increase in bandwidth.
MIMO can be implemented in GSM, CDMA, Wimax, UMTS, etc

wireless technology.
MIMO Channel Modeling creates the perfect and realistic

environment to test the Tx-Rx equipment.


MIMO Channel models are also helpful to recreate the conditions of

signal diversity.
MIMO Channel Modeling helps in analyzing the capacity of the

channels, fading effects , correlation among links, scattering

MIMO System : An Overview

2x2 MIMO System

MIMO : Channel Matrix


The 2x2 MIMO system channel matrix is given as

where the coefficients hmR mT represents the spatial channel between each Tx-Rx antenna pair. The input-output relationship of a MIMO system is given by linear model as y = Hs + n where H is the narrowband MIMO channel matrix.

MIMO Technology : Benefits


Array gain Spatial diversity gain

Interference reduction and avoidance


Spatial multiplexing gain

MIMO System: Transmitter


IFFT and Add CP

ENCODER AND PUNCTRING

SPACE FREQUENCY INTERLEAVER

MODULATION (BPSK,QPSK, 16 & 64 QAM)

SPATIAL MAPPING
IFFT and Add CP

OFDM Modulator

MIMO System: Receiver


FFT and Remove CP

ANTENNA
SELECTION

V- BLAST

SOFT DECISION

SPACE FREQUENCY INTERLEAVER

DEPUNCTURE & DECODER

FFT and Remove CP OFDM Demodulator

MIMO: Spatial Multiplexing Scheme

TX

RX

SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING SCHEME TX

SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING SCHEME RX

MIMO : Spatial Multiplexing Receivers


1. Maximum Likelihood (ML) receiver 2. Zero-forcing receiver

3. Minimum mean square error receiver (MMSE)


4. Successive cancelation receiver 5. V-BLAST receiver 6. D-BLAST receiver

MIMO : Antenna selection


Spatial diversity involves placing two receive antennas at a

specific distance from each other.


The objective is that when one antenna is in a deep fade, the

other antenna still has a strong signal.


Antennas should be spaced by more than one coherence

distance apart.
Antenna spacing on the order of 0.4 0.6 is adequate for

independent fading.

MIMO: Spacetime coding


It improves the downlink performance. It imparts coding gain in addition to the spatial diversity

gain.
It does not require channel state information (CSI) at the

transmitter.
Spacetime codes: trellis codes, block codes and turbo

codes are widely used.

MIMO : Channel Models


PHYSICS BASED ANALYTICAL- BASED DETERMINISTIC : 1. Ray Tracing Model 2. Finite difference time domain(FDTD) 3. Methods of Moments(MoM) 1. 2. 3. 4. Full Correlation. Spatially White(i.i.d) Kronecker Model. Weischelberger (WB) Model.

Stochastic : 1. Geometric Based Stochastic Model. 2. Non Geometric Based Stochastic Model. 1. 2. 3.

MIXED BASED
Finite Scatterer Model (FSM). Virtual Channel Representation (VCR). Maximum Entropy Model.

Measurement Based : 1. Measurement system independent 2. Application Specific

PHYSICS: Deterministic Propagation Models


Ray tracing : 1. It is typically based on the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. 2. The idea is to find all possible paths that the signal can travel between the Tx and the Rx. 3. It is best applicable in man made environments. MoM and FTTD : These are also very accurate field prediction models, but due to computational complexity, their applicability is constrained to structures with limited dimensions.

Stochastic: Geometric Based Model

GCSM

PHYSICS: Stochastic Channel Model


Examples GSCM type model 1. COST273 channel model. 2. IST-WINNER model. 3. 3GPP model.

Examples Non GSCM type model 1. Saleh-Valenzuela Angular (SVA) model. 2. Zwick model.

PHYSICS: Measurement-Based Channel Modeling

1. It refers to the method where a measurement system along with parameter estimation techniques are employed.
2. The results are specific to the measured environment and no environment database is explicitly required. 3. It is often needed for determining the cluster/multipath parameter statistics for the stochastic models.

Analytical Models
Correlation-Based Analytical Models Spatial Whiteness Hi.i.d = Hw

Kronecker Model

Weichselberger Model

Mixed models
Finite Scatterer Model (FSM)

Virtual Channel Representation (VCR)

Maximum Entropy Model

MIMO : Channel Matrix Formulation

where H is Channel Matrix, HF is the fixed matrix and Hv is Rayleigh matrix.

MIMO: Measurement-Based Channel Modeling


The MBCM framework includes the following procedures: 1. Conducting MIMO channel sounding measurements . 2. Estimating the channel model parameters from measurement data. 3. Deriving model statistics for parameterizing and improving current Channel models. 4. Reconstructing channel realizations for simulation purposes using measurement-based parameters or, alternatively. 5. Applying the measured channels directly in simulations .

Multi-User MIMO
MULTI USER COMMUNICATIONS
Centralized case Decentralized (Ad-hoc) case

Multi-User Communications vs. Classical MIMO

Added complexity: (1)Concurrent transmission creates interference. (2)Multiple power constraints. (3)Need for advanced scheduling (centralized) or self-organization (ad-hoc case).

Benefits: (1)More degrees of freedom available for resource allocation. (2)Multiuser diversity.

Thank You..