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Vector Spatial Analysis

Geog-3205 By

Khurram Chohan

Foundations for Applied GIS

Review
Functions of a GIS

Overview
Spatial data analysis

What is spatial analysis? Focusing your analysis: Queries and selections Running your analysis: Spatial functions
Single layer operations: Buffering, summarizing Multiple layer functions: splitting, merging, overlay

Models

Specialized forms of analyses


Point pattern analysis

Network analysis

Spatial analysis process


Frame the question Understand your data
Common GIS Analysis Tasks: Mapping where things are Mapping most and least Finding whats inside Finding whats nearby

Choose a method
Process the data Look at the results

GIS Analysis Examples: Finding features affected by proposed road Getting driving directions from MapQuest

Based on Mitchell (1999): The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis (on reserve)

Focusing Analysis: Queries and selections


Selection: Finding features that meet conditions or criteria

Which businesses are in Punjab Province? Which city businesses are within 5 mi of Railway station? Calculate distance between two cities (Karachi to Hyderabad )

Queries in GIS
Query: question to get info about your database Types of queries:

Aspatial (based on table): Select by attributes Spatial (based on geometry): Select by location

Attribute: characteristic of a feature Logic of queries:


Create new selection Remove from the selection

Add to the selection

Select from selection


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Parts of Query
Relational operators

=
AND

<
OR

>

<=
NOT

>=

Boolean/logical operators
Simple queries
Punjab= Lahore

Compound queries
House_Size >20marla AND Lawn=yes
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Working with query results


Why select features?

Focus your analysis Use selected features to select other features (from other layers) Save selected set to a new dataset Summarize selected features

Spatial analysis functions


One or more inputs One or more outputs

Input/outputs may be spatial (layers) or other types of data, such as tables, values, or lists
Functions may be grouped together into a model

Spatial operations

Bolstad (2008): Figure 9-2 (on reserve)

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Single-layer analysis functions


Data generalization: Summarize, dissolve

Combining your data into simpler format

Proximity analysis: Buffering

Finding whats nearby

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Summarize
Attribute summarization

Count number of features Count number of features by type Summarize other numeric attributes (area, length, etc.) Useful for reporting results of analysis

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Example: Summarize attributes


Summarize by location Summarize by type Results in table
State Texas Kansas State Texas Kansas Iowa Nebraska # Tornadoes West Virginia 178 125 # Tornadoes 178 125 119 109 5

Iowa
Nebraska West Virginia

119
109 5

Tornadoes (2004) National Atlas

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Example: Summarize attributes


Summarize by location Summarize by type Results in table
F scale 0 1 # Tornadoes 1214 470

2
3 4

103
23 5

Tornadoes (2004) by Fujita scale (severity)

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Dissolve function
Spatial summarization Remove unneeded information

Simplify your data


Group like features into single larger feature

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Example: Dissolve

343 watersheds (before) With river basin attribute

32 river basins (after) New shapefile

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Proximity analysis: Buffering


Proximity: distance between features Buffer: area at a given distance from mapped features (inside or outside a threshold distance) How buffering works:

Buffer points, lines, polygons at a certain distance

Can dissolve adjacent buffers, or keep separate


Can buffer all at same distance, or can vary distance

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Example: Buffer
Can buffer points, lines or polygons

1 mile buffer around Blackwater River

Multiple 5 mile buffer zones around Charleston

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Example: Buffer
Schools buffered by mile

Buffer with Dissolve

Buffer without Dissolve

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Example: Buffer
Create buffers Then, use buffers to clip other layers

Mile Buffer, University High School Used to clip roads layer


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Multiple-layer functions
Overlay analysis

Clip

Intersect
Union

Clip Intersect Union

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Example: Clip
Streams Watershed Clip Result

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Example: Clip

I-64 922 miles total

Remember to update length, area, perimeter etc. after clip

I-64 After clip to WV 180 miles

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Example: Intersect
Intersect combines features, only in area common to both layers Features in output layer have attributes of both layers

Monongahela National Forest

Ranger Districts and Roads

Roads Intersected With Districts


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Example: Union
Union combines features from two polygon layers Output includes all attributes from both input layers

Great Lakes Region

Union output: All features are maintained, but are split


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Other multi-layer functions


Erase Spatial join
Erase

Merge

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Example: Spatial join


Two layers Input features (usually points) are labeled with all attributes of all join layer features

Springs

Springs joined with County


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Example: Merge
Two or more input layers (must be same feature type) Merge into single output layer

Streams (in two adjacent watersheds)

Streams (merged)
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Problems in layer overlay


Slivers, layers dont always overlay exactly ArcGIS: layers need to have defined projections

slivers

Watersheds
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Example: Multi-part analysis


Many questions require multiple steps to be carried out in sequence:

Selecting features Performing single or multiple layer functions

For example:

How many acres of emergent wetlands are within 1/10th mile of the proposed highway route?

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Sample question: Steps


Intermediate output layers Emergent Wetlands Clip

Analysis functions Input layers Wetlands Select emergent wetlands only

Highway Route

Buffer by 0.1 mile

Road buffer

Answer

Summarize area of all polygons

Recalculate Area after clip

Clipped Emergent Wetlands

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Analysis in ArcGIS software: ArcToolbox


ArcToolbox contains all analysis functions discussed, plus many more ArcToolbox runs within ArcMap

All functions grouped into categories, wizard-driven


For best results:

Install latest patch (if using student evaluation software)


Make sure all layers have projection defined

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Analysis in ArcGIS: Models


ArcGIS can also automate models using Models (in ArcToolbox) Why build model?

More efficient way to run repetitive tasks Re-run same steps with different data layers

Can model complex processes

Input Data

Tool

Derived Data

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Model Builder example


ILARIS model: Ranking signature landscapes for Puget Sound 60 input layers 40 sub-models

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Analyzing spatial patterns: Spatial statistics


Point pattern analysis:

Are locations random or clustered?


Mine permits and coal seams

Tests

Randomness Clustering

Spatial autocorrelation

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Point pattern analysis: Clustering


Nearest neighbor analysis Are your points dispersed or clustered?

Function in ArcGIS

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Point pattern analysis: Auto-correlation


Spatial auto-correlation: Features closer to one another are more related than features further away Morans I: A measure of spatial auto-correlation Function found in ArcGIS
A larger positive number <= 1 Not significantly different from 0 A negative value >= -1 = a clustered pattern

= =

random (no spatial autocorrelation) a scattered pattern

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Other point analyses


Can compute point-to-point distance As the crow flies (straight line)

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Network analysis
Network: System of connected lines Network attributes for each segment:

Direction Length Connectivity

Forms of network analysis:


Network navigation (paths) along network Distance, travel cost, route selection

Linear referencing/addressing
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Networks in GIS

Stream flow network

Road network
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Network analysis: Distance along network


With network:

Direction of flow

Distance from point to point Estimate time of travel Navigate upstream/downstream


How far? How long? Spill

Town
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Network analysis: Route selection


MapQuest

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Network analysis: Linear referencing


GIS can be used to automatically locate street addresses Needs:

Table of addresses to locate Streets layer

From address attribute


To address attribute
Example: Locating 321 M.L.King Street
Figure 9-45, Bolstad (2008)
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Learning more
Specialized GIS analyses are covered in more detail

RESM follow up classes (Natural/Social Science) RESM 575 (taught spring semester) ESRI Virtual Campus classes (see link)
Network Analyst Spatial statistics Address geo-coding Free to WVU students (check website, then see me to sign up)
http://training.esri.com/campus/catalog/licenses/courselist.cfm?id=43
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Summary
Vector spatial analysis includes:

Selecting features of interest Single layer operations Multiple layer operations

More complex modeling


Constructing models of reality Point pattern analysis Network analysis

More information available from WVU classes, ESRI training


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