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Organisation of the paper

Introduction Brief History of VR Major Applications of VR Advantages of VR Challenges to VR Application


Virtual Reality (VR) refers to computersimulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds.

Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones.
Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications.

Brief History of VR
Virtual reality can trace its roots to the 1860s, when 360-degree art through panoramic murals began to appear

JIT Components
Eliminate Disruptions Flexible System Reduce set-up and Lead times Minimize Inventory Eliminate waste

General JIT Implementation Guidelines Top Management Support Education and Training Thorough Planning Pilot Project

Advantages of JIT
Ease of Movement Relax Fit Strategic Deployment Flexibility Cleanliness Low Profile Convenience Simplicity Speed

Introduction contd
The paper outlines a brief history of JIT, general implementation guidelines, components of JIT that can be effectively implemented with the underlying benefits. The paper also highlights some of the components of JIT that may be difficult to implement.

Introduction contd
Details in the paper borrow heavily from the industrial setting where this technology has been found to work effectively. It draws comparative analysis of the areas of possible application and areas where application may not be suitable. Lessons are drawn for education and training leaders and managers.


Just In Time is a Japanese management method developed in 1960s. It was first adopted by Toyota manufacturing plants by Taiichi Ohno who is regarded as the father of JIT The Japanese developed JIT techniques to improve their competitive position through the elimination of excess, waste, and unevenness


Major companies embraced quality as being a central theme of JIT manufacturing system all over the world. Today JIT system has been adopted in many companies in the world all over from giant manufacturing industries to small-scale industries.


The management system is not only pegged on manufacturing industries but also to service industry including schools and training institutions. The system has also attracted different terms as: lean management, kaizen, and agile among others depending with the implementation mode


JIT is a philosophy embodying various concepts that result in a different way of doing business for most organizations. The basic tenets of this philosophy include:
All waste should be eliminated JIT is a never ending journey, but with rewarding steps and milestones. Inventory is a waste.


Flexibility Mutual respect and support Team effort The employee who performs a task often is the best source of suggested improvements in the operation. It is important to employ the workers' brains, not merely their hands.

General JIT Implementation Guidelines

In this section I summarise general guidelines, taken from the literature, for JIT implementation, which will be discussed in the context of the educational institutions management in a latter section.

Top Management Support

Since JIT encompasses a number of functional areas of the organisation, top management support is a must. The top management must be involved in the process and know what it will cost, how long it will take to complete the conversion and the expected results

Education and Training

Various authors emphasise training and education as a fundamental requirement for JIT implementation in order to promote a significant change in attitude of the workforce that will create an environment conducive to completing the implementation Purchase of a bunch of computers and some form of software for a school is not an end on its own. The staff must be trained their use and benefits. The employees are fully informed about what JIT is and why it is desirable and are assured of their job security

Thorough Planning
Implementing JIT operational aspects, without considering the underlying principles, will not bring the full benefits of JIT. It is important that JIT is seen as a philosophy rather than a set of add-on techniques to current practices The organisation must question why and how it uses JIT and be able to figure out the results of undertaking JIT and incorporate them into its strategy

Pilot Project
A pilot project is necessary to demonstrate to all employees how the system works. It must be large enough to give an impressive result, but not so large that it cannot be completed in a short time. It should involve the best people and be run on a controllable environment to avoid complexity in the first place

JIT Components
The ultimate goal of JIT is a balanced system that is one that achieves a smooth rapid flow of services through the system. The focus is to make the process time of a product or service as short as possible by using resources in the best way possible.

JIT Components contd

Eliminate disruptions Flexible system Reduce set-up times and lead times Minimize inventory

JIT Components contd

Eliminate waste
Defects Over-Ordering Waiting Movement Inappropriate Processing

Total quality control

In the institutional set up the top quality control can be effectively attained in both instructional materials and equipments and teaching. Teaching would be governed by the comments in the market or the next level where the next level dictate the quality to be produced in the lower level of learning. This has profound advantages in that human resource so produced would be in tune with market requirements.

Total quality control contd

The training equipments and materials quality can be attained with institutions working in collaboration with suppliers and manufacturers. Longer relationship between the institutions, suppliers, and manufacturers enhance quality control where each other assist in managing quality.

Preventive maintenance
Preventive maintenance is a major aspect of any organisation, which involves maintaining equipment and machines in good operating condition and rectifying problems before they actually occur The major purpose underlying preventive maintenance being to intercept small problems before they develop into big problems.

Preventive maintenance contd

Total organisation is also attained systematically through a structured program. The well-organised workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation. This is attained through process invented in Japan, and stands for five (5) Japanese words that start with the letter 'S': Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke.

Preventive maintenance contd

Seiri (Tidiness) Seiton (orderliness) Seiso (Cleanliness) Seiketsu (Standardization) Shitsuke (Discipline)

Personnel organisational elements

Employees as assets Cross-trained Employees Continuous improvement

Advantages of JITT
In this section advantages of using Just-In-Time Technology are outlined. These are drawn from various literature sources. The advantages outlined are theoretical based on the availability of lightweight laptop carts, batteries that last an entire day, network software that is fast and reliable, and equipment that performs in a trustworthy manner. The laptop computers used in institutions do not require cable connections but rather use wireless connection.

Advantages of JITT contd

Ease of Movement Relaxed Fit Strategic Deployment Flexibility Cleanliness Low Profile Convenience Simplicity Speed

JIT has profound benefits as to institutional management as outlined above. However there are some of its components that may not be adaptable to institutional management due to their nature of applicability and underlying goals of institutional establishment. This however does not negate its adoption in institutional management.

Conclusion contd
Planning for adoption where purpose and learning ahead of introduction of the technology. This grants the technology a better chance of gaining broad based use and acceptance among the teachers and other users. Threats and directives are unlikely to gain audience, rather careful matching of program offerings and professional development with diverse teacher styles, inclinations and goals.

Conclusion contd
Preparation of the institution to integrate JITT is a necessity. The institutions that cultivate the soil by investing in lesson development and professional development well ahead of equipment are likely to see growth and change. Organisational development is more likely to produce behaviour change and results than tools and toys.

Conclusion contd
Balance in investment of all of the elements that combine to bring about results. These include professional development, Information resources assessment, Planning, Organisational cultivation, opportunity cost, software purchase and renewal. The institutions should exercise reasonable caution when selecting technology.

Conclusion contd
It is clear that it is possible for educational institutions to adopt JITT and realise positive results. Care should however be taken to ensure that only those components that would exhibit profound results are adopted. It is also clear that not all JITT components applicable in manufacturing industrial management would necessarily be applicable in institutional management.

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