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Alcatel BTS Training Program

Khalid Mahmood (RYK-222)

BTS Role in GSM Network


The BTS provides two-way radio communication between the PSTN and Mobile Station (Mobile Set) located in a single GSM cell. It also provides a similar link between the mobile station and the rest of the networks. The BTS provides on interface for the digital baseband signals used by the land based networks and the GSM radio signals used by mobile station.

Logical position of BTS in BSS

BTS in BSS with GPRS


For system incorporating GPRS some additional components are required as shown the below figure. An MFS is placed in the system between the BSC and SGSN. The MFS contains a number of PCUs, one of which controls all the GPRS activity for the one cell.

Logical position of BTS in BSS with GPRS

SGSN (serving GPRS support node)

A serving GPRS support node (SGSN) is responsible for the delivery of data packets from and to the mobile stations within its geographical service area. Its tasks include packet routing and transfer, mobility management (attach/detach and location management), logical link management, and authentication and charging functions. The location register of the SGSN stores location information (e.g., current cell, current VLR) and user profiles (e.g., IMSI, address(es) used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with this SGSN.

Functional Architecture of BTS

Functional Architecture of BTS

Channel Organization RF signals over the Air interface carry traffic and signaling/Control channels which are organized according to GSM recommendations. The allocation and control of these channels are managed by the BTS functions. Radio Resource Management function controls and organize radio resources to meet current operational needs of both the networks and individual.

BTS Functions
As the principal interface between the PSTN and Mobile Stations, the BTS performs four primary functions. Transmission function, which manage the transfer of traffic and control data between the BTS and BSC. Telecommunication functions, which manage the transfer of traffic and control data between the BTS and Mobile Station. O&M function, which supervise the operation of the BTS. Support function, which provides a logical and physical environment in which the BTS functions can be realized.
Communication between the transmission, telecommunication, and O&M functions is managed according to the OSI model. The BTS functions are concerned with layer 1 (Physical), Layer 2 (Data Link), and Layer 3 (Network) of this model.

Transmission Functions

To minimize operating costs, all data passed between the BTS and BSC in Time division multiplexed onto a single physical interface. This is the Abis Interface, which carries all the data sent between the BSC and BTS. Logical links between the BSC and BTS handles the following information:

Signaling data used for control purposes


O&M data for the BTS transmission module O&M data for the BTS entities User data in the form of speech and data traffic.

Transmission Functions

To minimize operating costs, all data passed between the BTS and BSC in Time division multiplexed onto a single physical interface. This is the Abis Interface, which carries all the data sent between the BSC and BTS. Logical links between the BSC and BTS handles the following information:

Signaling data used for control purposes


O&M data for the BTS transmission module O&M data for the BTS entities User data in the form of speech and data traffic.

Abis Interface:

For BTS and BSC multiplexing equipment is normally connected using dedicated cabling. Other method of Abis Interface connection can be used for BTS, where the installation of the dedicated cabling in not possible. In this case, control of the transmission medium is in the hands of third party.
Microwave Link (used where line of sight radio path is available. Leased Line (Copper Cable or Fiber Optic used where the distance between the BSC and BTS is too great for microwave). Satellite Link (Used where Previous two methods are not possible)

Telecommunication Function

There are two primary telecommunication functions:


Baseband Functions: Based band funcations modulate and encode traffic and signaling data from the BSC according to GSM recomendaitos. This data is then sent to the Mobile Stations using the RF function. Traffic and signaling received from the Mobile Stations is demodulated and decoded to recover the baseband data.

Telecommunication Function

RF Function: RF functions enable traffic and signaling to be sent and received over the Air Interface as a radio signal. A special link layer protocol ensures the reliable transfer of signaling data over the Air Interface. For antenna Diversity, the telecommunication function uplink path is duplicated. The duplicated functions intend from the antennas, through the RF functions.

O&M Functions
O&M functions monitor and control the correct operation of the BTS and its external interfaces. These function are shared between the BTS and BSC. The BSC provides overall control. The O&M function use Layer 2 links for BTS internal communications. A terminal connected via an MMI is used for local operator control of the BTS. There are four categorized of O&M function: Configuration Management Fault Management Dedicated Alarm and Control Handling External Alarm Handling. The O&M function also control the operation of the RF self-tests and manage the actions required by the BTS recovery Strategy.

Support Function
The support function provides a number of services relevant to the internal working of the BTS are: Clock generation and distribution. External alarm collection.

Internal self tests.

Introduction of Alcatel BTS

BTS Circuit Breakers (BCB) Network Interface Card Shelf # 5

External Alarm Circuit Board (EACB)

Combiners Shelf # 4

Shelf # 3
TRE

Shelf # 2

SUMA Card

Shelf # 1

External Alarm Circuit Board (EACB) Network Interface Card

BTS Circuit Breakers (BCB)

BTS Circuit Breakers (BCB)

External Alarm Circuit Board (EACB)

Network Interface Card

Lock Fastener

Module Extractor Equipment Label

Transmitter Connector

Antenna Connector

Receiver Connector

Lock Fastener

Transmitter Connector

Equipment Label

Module Extractor Receiver Connector

Antenna Connector

Module Extractor Transmitter Connector Equipment Label

ON/OFF Switch

USB Test Connector

Receiver Connector

LEDs Lock Fastener

BTS Connection Area Connector


Abis Connector

Equipment Label
BTS Terminal Connector

Test Connector
USB Connector

LEDs

Lock Fastener

SUMA Card Basic Architecture

Remote Inventory Cable (RI Cable)

Remote Inventory Cable (RI Cable)

Cabinet Cooling Fan

Connect to Alcatel BTS Using BTS-Terminal release B9

User Name (COMMTE)

Password (COMMTE)

Press Baud rate button to set it

Select the appropriate COM Port

Select Baud rate = 19200

Press F2 OR Connect/Disconnect button OR File->Connect/Disconnect from menu

Menu bar will be changed on establishing successful connection

Following windows will open on establishing successful connection

Monitor Active Alarm

External Active Alarms Show Here

Show Hardware Configuration (Ctrl H)

Select All

Select Appropriate Module

Select OK

SUMA Card = OMU 1

Rack A (BTS Cabinet # 1)

Shelf # 2

Slot # 7

SBL Module States (F5)

SBL Module States (F5) Antenna 1=B Antenna 0=A

RA 1= Combiner 1 Sector A

VSWR Value=1.1 VSWR Value=1.2

SBL Management

Read

Initialize

SBL Management

Select Module

Disable Reset Restart

Execution Result Selected Module Type

State of the Module (NEQ/OPR/IT)

Modify Hardware Configuration

Remove Module

End Modification of HW Configuration

Select Module to Remove

Following window appears (Cabling Detection in Progress)

Click Yes

OFF Line Commissioning Procedure

Switch OFF the BTS cabinet and disconnect Abis connectors from DDF before offline start

Disconnect the Abis connector from The DDF

Switch ON the BTS cabinet breakers and connect the Laptop at the BTS Terminal using MMI Cable

User Name (COMMTE)

Password (COMMTE)

Press F2 OR Connect/Disconnect button OR File->Connect/Disconnect from menu

Menu bar will be changed on establishing successful connection

Following windows will open on establishing successful connection

Restore Default

Warning Window appears Click OK to Restore SUMA Card

Verify Qmux address Press Yes to change it Confirm Qmux address from OMCR first

Go to Commissioning->Download->BTS-SW to download BTS software

Edit New Qmux address Press Put button to update

Updating Qmux address

Press Browse to select the path of BM1SAW19.MSF file

Press Browse to select the path of AGC3AVWa.DDL file

Path Selection Window

Software download in Progress It may take up to 30 minutes

Initialization window open when download complete

Receiving data window open

Select appropriate option from Frequency Brand dropdown menu 1- Select GSM for GSM cabinet 2- Select DCS1800 for DCS cabinet 3- Select GSM for GSM+DCS (Combined) cabinet

Dont uncheck Bridge check option and dont change Sectors numbers Press Save button in Sector mapping window

Updating flash

Press Save in TMA Setting window

Press Settings->Transmission->Initial Settings

Check Line impedance for Abis1 & Abis2 = 75ohm

Reconfirm the Qmux address

Verify Baud Rate = 1200

Verify Environment Abis1 = Chain end position

Verify CRC Check = ON

Press Settings->Transmission->Board Settings

Uncheck all TREs press Transmit button

Press Commissioning->Initialization->All Sectors to initialize BTS

Initialization of Commissioning in progress

Press Commissioning->Station Unit Test for Station Unit Test

Select Internal Loop

Station Unit Test in progress

Following Results on successful completion

Select External Loop (Make Sure that the Abis # or 2 must be looped at DDF

Abis # 1 Loop test failed because Abis # 1 not Looped at DDF

Result window appears

Now switch on the BTS cabinet breakers and through the site

Reconnect the Abis connector at DDF by verifying the TX/RX cables properly

Reconnect the Abis connector at DDF by verifying the TX/RX cables properly

Best Wishes OFF Line Commissioning is Done Successfully

Alcatel Glossary
AN BCB BSII BSS BTS BTSW

A Antenna Network B BTS Control Bus Base Station Controller Base Station Subsystem Base Station Transceiver BTS-Terminal for Windows

Alcatel Glossary
CCF CDM CLEI CLLK CPF CRC CU

C Cabinet Cooling Fan Configuration Data Message Common Language Equipment Clock Link Configuration Parameter File Cyclic Redundancy Check Carrier Unit

Alcatel Glossary
D Direct Current Deferred Maintenance Alarm E Equipped

DC DMA

EQU

Alcatel Glossary
F FIA Format Identifier for Application part of RI FIM Format Identifier Manufacturing FIT Faulty In Traffic FLT Faulty FOS Faulty Out of Service

Alcatel Glossary
ICS IT
LDA LRA I Item Change Status In Traffic L Local Defence Action Local Recovery Action

Alcatel Glossary
MI MSA MSD
NEQ NOP M Maintenance Information MSD Auto Maintenance Seized N Not Equipped Not Operational

Alcatel Glossary
O O&M Operation and Maintenance OMU Operation and Maintenance Unit OMUA OMU A RIT OMUB OMU B RIT OP Operational OPR Operator

Alcatel Glossary
P
PADD PMA Physical Address Prompt Maintenance Alarm R RA Radio Access RF Radio Frequency RFH Radio Frequency Hopping ( also known as : Synthesizer Hopping ) RI Remote Inventory RIT Replaceable Item RX Receiver or receive ..... RTC Remote Tunable Combiner

Alcatel Glossary
S SBL Security Block Level SCFE Station Unit Control Function Entity RIT SOS System Out of Service SUM Station Unit Module SUMP SUM PCM RIT SW Software

Alcatel Glossary
T TLV Tag, Length, Value TRE Transceiver Module (combined Transmitter / Receiver functionality for base band and RF signals) TS Timeslot TX Transmitter or transmit .....

Alcatel Glossary
VPMA VSWR WBC WTC XBCB XCLK XIOB

V Very Prompt Maintenance Alarm Voltage Standing Wave Ratio W Wide Band Combiner Wait Traffic Clear X External BCB External Clock External Input Output Board