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Personality

Organization behavior By:- Neha Gupta

Chapter 2 Individual Differences

Personality

Ability

Figure 2.1 Nature and Nurture: The Determinants of Personality

The Nature of Personality


Personality
Develops over a persons lifetime Generally stable in the context of work Can influence career choice, job satisfaction, stress, leadership, and even performance

Figure 2.2 The Interaction of Personality and Situational Factors

MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

I. Biological Contributions:
The role of heredity. Managerial thinking. Physical characteristics and rate of maturing.

MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY


II. Cultural Contributions III. Contributions from the Family. Parental influence. Birth-Order-Data.

The Interaction of Personality and Situational Factors


Strong situational pressures
Personality may not predict behavior
Example: enforcement of rules

Weak Situational pressures


Personality may predict behavior
Example: Customer sales reps

Ben Schneiders Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Framework

Employee personalities = Organizational personality

Ben Schneiders Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Framework

Individuals with similar personalities tend to be attracted to an organization (Attraction) and hired by it (Selection) and individuals with other types of personalities tend to leave the organization (Attrition)
Examples
Advantages and Disadvantages

Figure 2.3 The Big Five Model of Personality

Extraversion

Conscientiousness

Neuroticism

Openness to Experience

Agreeableness

Extraversion (Positive Affectivity)


Personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotional states and feel good about themselves and the world around them

Extraverts

Introverts

Neuroticism (Negative Affectivity)


Personality trait that reflects peoples tendency to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively

High

Low

Agreeableness
Personality trait that captures the distinction between individuals who get along well with other people and those who do not

High

Low

Conscientiousness
Personality trait that describes the extent to which an individual is careful, scrupulous, and persevering

High

Low

Figure 2.8 Personality Traits Relevant to Organizations

Locus of Control

Internal

External

Self-Monitoring

The extent to which people try to control the way they present themselves to others

High

Low

Self-Esteem
Personality trait that describes the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities.

High

Low

Type A versus Type B Personality


Type A individuals have an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile Type B individuals are more relaxed and easy going

McClellands Learned Needs

Need for Power

Need for Achievement

Need for Affiliation

Managers should have a high need for achievement and power.

Assess your own personalitywith the major personality attributes influencing OB


Locus of control: Machiavellianism Self-Esteem: internal.external lowhigh low.high

Self-Monitoring
Risk Taking

low.high
low..high

Type A Personality BA