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Dosen: R. Purwoko P. Ak. MFM E-mail: rpurwoko@yahoo.com HP : 0813 10515911
Dosen: R. Purwoko P. Ak. MFM
E-mail: rpurwoko@yahoo.com
HP : 0813 10515911
Learning Objectives Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan dan memahami tentang: 1. Tujuan dan ruang lingkup Kerangka Konseptual Laporan
Learning Objectives
Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan dan memahami tentang:
1.
Tujuan dan ruang lingkup Kerangka Konseptual Laporan Keuangan
2.
Tujuan Laporan Keuangan dan Asumsi Dasar yang digunakan
3.
Ciri-ciri Kualitatif Laporan Keuangan
4.
Definisi dan Elemen-elemen Laporan Keuangan
5.
Pengakuan Elemen-elemen Laporan Keuangan
6.
Pengukuran Elemen-elemen Laporan Keuangan
7.
Konsep Modal dan Pemeliharaan Modal.
Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kerangka Konseptual Laporan Keuangan Financial Reporting  Accounting and Financial Reporting 
Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kerangka
Konseptual Laporan Keuangan
Financial Reporting
Accounting and Financial Reporting
Development of Accounting Standards
Other Organizations important to F R
International Accounting Issues
A Conceptual Framework of Accounting
Careers in Financial Accounting
Accounting and Financial Reporting Financial Reporting  Accounting and Financial Reporting  Development of Accounting Standards
Accounting and Financial Reporting
Financial Reporting
Accounting and Financial Reporting
Development of Accounting Standards
Other Organizations important to F R
International Accounting Issues
A Conceptual Framework of Accounting
Careers in Financial Accounting
Accounting and Financial Reporting 1. Definisi akuntansi 2. Pengguna informasi akuntansi 3. Pembagian akuntansi 4. Pelaporan
Accounting and Financial Reporting
1.
Definisi akuntansi
2.
Pengguna informasi akuntansi
3.
Pembagian akuntansi
4.
Pelaporan keuangan
Accounting and Financial Reporting Definisi akuntansi: “Accounting is a service activity. Its function is to provide
Accounting and Financial Reporting
Definisi akuntansi:
“Accounting is a service activity.
Its function is to provide quantitative information,
primarily financial in nature, about economic
entities that is intended to be usefull in making
economic decisions-in making reaseoned
choises among alternatives courses of action”
Accounting and Financial Reporting Akuntansi adalah :  kegiatan jasa  menyajikan informasi kuantitatif bersifat keuangan
Accounting and Financial Reporting
Akuntansi adalah :
kegiatan jasa
menyajikan informasi kuantitatif
bersifat keuangan
dari suatu entitas ekonomi
untuk pengambilan keputusan ekonomi
dalam memilih berbagai pilihan tindakan.
Pengguna Informasi Keuangan  All parties interested in the financial health of a company are called
Pengguna Informasi Keuangan
All parties interested in the financial health of a
company are called stakeholders.
Major Internal and External Stakeholder Groups
• Internal users, who make decisions directly affecting
the internal operations of the enterprise.
• External users, who make decisions concerning their
relationship to the enterprise.
Pengguna Laporan Keuangan Investors Government Community Analysts Board of Directors Management Employees Suppliers Employees Customers Creditors
Pengguna Laporan Keuangan
Investors
Government
Community
Analysts
Board of Directors
Management
Employees
Suppliers
Employees
Customers
Creditors
9
Tujuan Pengguna Informasi Keuangan  Internal users • Untuk membantu perencanaan dan pengendalian operasi perusahaan. 
Tujuan Pengguna Informasi
Keuangan
Internal users
• Untuk membantu perencanaan dan pengendalian operasi
perusahaan.
External users
• Investor
• Untuk menilai profitability dan safety inventasi
• Kreditor
• Untuk menilai stability dan profitability perusahaan
Pembagian Akuntansi Akuntansi Manajemen Memfokuskam diri pada Penyajian informasi ke Fihak intern perusahaan Akuntansi Keuangan Memfokuskam
Pembagian Akuntansi
Akuntansi
Manajemen
Memfokuskam diri pada
Penyajian informasi ke
Fihak intern perusahaan
Akuntansi
Keuangan
Memfokuskam diri pada
Penyajian informasi ke
Fihak ektern perusahaan
Financial Reporting Internal Eksternal Dipandu oleh Nilai guna Dipandu oleh GAAP/SAK Lebih detail Lebih ringkas Isi
Financial Reporting
Internal
Eksternal
Dipandu oleh Nilai guna
Dipandu oleh GAAP/SAK
Lebih detail
Lebih ringkas
Isi dan bentuk sesuai
Wujudnya berupa :
kebutuhan
a.
Laporan Laba rugi
b.
Laporan Perubahan Ekuitas
c.
Neraca
d.
Laporan Arus Kas
e.
Catatan atas Laporan Keuangan
Financial Reporting The balance sheet reports, as of The a certain income statement point in time,
Financial Reporting
The balance sheet
reports, as of The a certain income statement
point in time, reports, the for a specified
The statement of cash
resources of interval, a the net assets
flows reports, for a
company (the assets),
generated through
specified time period, the
the company’s
business operations
amount of cash generated
obligations (the
(revenues), the net
and consumed by a
liabilities), and the
assets consumed (the
company through
equity of the owners.
expenses), and the net
operating, financing, and
income.
investing activities.

13

Financial Reporting Accounting estimates and judgments are outlined in the notes to financial statements.
Financial Reporting
Accounting estimates and
judgments are outlined in the
notes to financial
statements.

14

Financial Statement Relationships Statement of Cash Flows Cash From Op $ 973,000 Cash From Inv Cash
Financial Statement Relationships
Statement of Cash Flows
Cash From Op $
973,000
Cash From Inv
Cash From Fin
Net Increase
Beg. Cash
End. Cash
(1,188,000)
245,000
$
30,000
80,000
$ 110,000
Balance Sheet 12/31/05
Balance Sheet 12/31/05
Income Statement
Cash
$
80,000
Cash
$
110,000
Revenues $12,443,000
Other
4,550,000
Other
4,975,000
Expenses
Net Income $
11,578,400
Total
$4,630,000
Total
$5,085,000
864,600
Liabilities
$2,970,000
Liabilities
$2,860,400
Stock
900,000
Statement of
Stock
1,000,000
R/E
760,000
Retained Earnings
R/E
1,224,600
Total
$4,630,000
Total
$5,085,000
R/E 12/31/04
Net Income
$
760,000
864,600
Dividends
(400,000)
R/E 12/31/05
$1,224,600
15
Conceptual Framework Overview of the Conceptual Framework Three levels: First Level = Basic objective Second Level
Conceptual Framework
Overview of the Conceptual Framework
Three levels:
First Level = Basic objective
Second Level = Qualitative characteristics and elements of financial
statements
Third Level = Recognition, measurement, and disclosure concepts
Tujuan Laporan Keuangan The overall objective of financial reporting is to provide information useful for decision
Tujuan Laporan Keuangan
The overall objective of
financial reporting is to
provide information useful
for decision making.
17
ASSUMPTIONS PRINCIPLES CONSTRAINTS 1. Economic entity 1. Measurement 1. Cost 2. Going concern 2. Revenue recognition
ASSUMPTIONS
PRINCIPLES
CONSTRAINTS
1.
Economic entity
1.
Measurement
1. Cost
2.
Going concern
2.
Revenue recognition
2. Materiality
Third
3.
Monetary unit
3.
Expense recognition
level
4.
Periodicity
4.
Full disclosure
5.
Accrual
QUALITATIVE
CHARACTERISTICS
ELEMENTS
1. Fundamental
qualities
1.
Assets
2.
Liabilities
Second level
3.
Equity
2. Enhancing
4.
Income
qualities
5.
Expenses
Illustration
Framework for Financial
Reporting
OBJECTIVE
Provide information
about the reporting
entity that is useful
to present and potential
equity investors,
lenders, and other
First level
creditors in their
capacity as capital
Providers.
First Level: Basic Objective OBJECTIVE “To provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful
First Level: Basic Objective
OBJECTIVE
“To provide financial information about the reporting entity
that is useful to present and potential equity investors,
lenders, and other creditors in making decisions in their
capacity as capital providers.”
Provided by issuing general-purpose financial statements.
Assumption is that users have reasonable knowledge of business
and financial accounting matters to understand the information.
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS 1. Fundamental qualities Second level 2. Enhancing qualities Qualitative Characteristics
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts
QUALITATIVE
CHARACTERISTICS
1. Fundamental
qualities
Second level
2. Enhancing
qualities
Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information :
IASB identified the Qualitative Characteristics of accounting information
that distinguish better (more useful) information from inferior (less useful)
information for decision-making purposes.
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts Illustration Hierarchy of Accounting Qualities
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts
Illustration
Hierarchy of Accounting
Qualities
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts Fundamental Quality - Relevance Relevance is one of the two fundamental qualities
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts
Fundamental Quality - Relevance
Relevance is one of the two fundamental qualities that make
accounting information useful for decision-making.
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts Fundamental Quality – Faithful Representation Faithful representation means that the numbers and
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts
Fundamental Quality – Faithful Representation
Faithful representation means that the numbers and
descriptions match what really existed or happened.
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts Enhancing Qualities Distinguish more-useful information from less-useful information.
Second Level: Fundamental Concepts
Enhancing Qualities
Distinguish more-useful information from less-useful
information.
Qualitative Characteristics Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used given the information provided. Characteristics:
Qualitative Characteristics
Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used
given the information provided.
Characteristics:
(a)
Qualitative characteristic being employed
when companies in the same industry are
using the same accounting principles.
Relevance
Faithful representation
Predictive value
Confirmatory value
(b)
Quality of information that confirms users’
Neutrality
earlier expectations.
Completeness
(c)
Imperative for providing comparisons of a
Timeliness
company from period to period.
Verifiability
(d)
Ignores the economic consequences of a
standard or rule.
Understandability
Comparability
Qualitative Characteristics Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used given the information provided. Characteristics:
Qualitative Characteristics
Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used
given the information provided.
Characteristics:
(e)
Requires a high degree of consensus
among individuals on a given
measurement.
Relevance
Faithful representation
Predictive value
Confirmatory value
(f)
Predictive value is an ingredient of this
fundamental quality of information.
Neutrality
Completeness
(g)
Qualitative characteristics that enhance
both relevance and faithful representation.
Timeliness
Verifiability
Understandability
Comparability
Qualitative Characteristics Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used given the information provided. Characteristics:
Qualitative Characteristics
Exercise 2-4: Identify the qualitative characteristic(s) to be used
given the information provided.
Characteristics:
(h)
Neutrality and completeness are
ingredients of this fundamental quality of
accounting information.
Relevance
Faithful representation
Predictive value
Confirmatory value
(i)
Two fundamental qualities that make
Neutrality
accounting information useful for decision-
Completeness
making purposes.
Timeliness
(j)
Issuance of interim reports is an example
of what enhancing ingredient?
Verifiability
Understandability
Comparability
Second Level: Basic Elements QUALITATIVE ELEMENTS CHARACTERISTICS 1. Assets 1. Fundamental qualities 2. Liabilities 3. Equity
Second Level: Basic Elements
QUALITATIVE
ELEMENTS
CHARACTERISTICS
1.
Assets
1. Fundamental
qualities
2.
Liabilities
3.
Equity
Second level
2. Enhancing
4.
Income
qualities
5.
Expenses
Illustration
Framework for Financial
Reporting
OBJECTIVE
Provide information
about the reporting
entity that is useful
to present and potential
equity investors,
lenders, and other
First level
creditors in their
capacity as capital
Providers.
Second Level: Basic Elements
Second Level: Basic Elements
Second Level: Basic Elements Versi Lama: 10 Unsur 1. Aktiva • Adalah manfaat ekonomis yang mungkin
Second Level: Basic Elements
Versi Lama: 10 Unsur
1.
Aktiva
Adalah manfaat ekonomis yang mungkin terjadi di masa depan, yang
diperoleh atau dkendalikan oleh entitas sebagai hasil dari transaksi atau
peristiwa di masa lalu.
2.
Kewajiban
Adalah pengorbanan atas manfaat yang mungkin terjadi di masa depan,
yang timbul dari kewajiban entitas pada saat ini, untuk menyerahkan
aktiva atau memberikan jasa kepada entitas lainnya di masa depan
sebagai hasil dari transaksi atau peristiwa di masa lalu.
3.
Ekuitas
Adalah kepemilikan atau kepentingan risidu dalam aktiva entitas, yang
masih tesisa setelah dikurangi dengan kewajibannya.
Second Level: Basic Elements Versi Lama: 10 Unsur 4. Investasi oleh Pemilik • Adalah kenaikan ekuitas
Second Level: Basic Elements
Versi Lama: 10 Unsur
4.
Investasi oleh Pemilik
Adalah kenaikan ekuitas (aktiva bersih) entitas yang dihasilkan dari
penyerahan sesuatu yang bernilai oleh entitas lain untuk memperoleh
atau meningkatkan bagian kepemilikannya.
5.
Distribusi kpd Pemilik
Adalah penurunan ekuitas (aktiva bersih) entitas yang disebabkan oleh
penyerahan aktiva, jasa atau terjadinya kewajiban entitas kepada
pemilik, yang akan menurunkan bagian kepemilikan (modal) entitas.
6.
Laba Komprehensif
Adalah perubahan dalam ekuitas entitas sepanjang suatu periode
sebagai akibat dari transaksi dan peristiwa serta keadaan-keadaan
lainnya yang bukan bersumber dari pemilik.
Second Level: Basic Elements Versi Lama: 10 Unsur 7. Pendapatan • Adalah arus masuk aktiva atau
Second Level: Basic Elements
Versi Lama: 10 Unsur
7.
Pendapatan
Adalah arus masuk aktiva atau pengingkatan lainnya atas aktiva
atau penyelesaian kewajiban entitas (atau kombinasi dari keduanya)
dari pengiriman barang, pemberian jasa, atau aktivitas lainnya yang
merupakan operasi utama atau operasi sentral perusahaan.
8.
Beban
Adalah arus keluar aktiva atau penggunaan lainnya atas aktiva atau
terjadinya (munculnya) kewajiban entitas (atau kombinasi dari
keduanya) yang disebabkan oleh pengiriman atau pembuatan
barang, pemberian jasa, atau aktivitas lainnya yang merupakan
operasi utama/ operasi sentral perusahaan.
Second Level: Basic Elements Versi Lama: 10 Unsur 7. Keuntungan • Adalah kenaikan dalam ekuitas (aktiva
Second Level: Basic Elements
Versi Lama: 10 Unsur
7.
Keuntungan
Adalah kenaikan dalam ekuitas (aktiva bersih) entitas yang ditimbulkan
oleh transaksi peripheral (transaksi di luar operasi utama atau operasi
sentral perusahaan) atau transaksi insidentil (transaksi yang
keterjadiannya jarang) dan dari seluruh transaksi lainnya, serta peristiwa
maupun keadaan-keadaan lainnya yang mempengaruhi entitas, tidak
termasuk yang berasal dari pendapatan atau investasi oleh pemilik.
8.
Kerugian
Adalah penurunan dalam ekuitas (aktiva bersih) entitas yang ditimbulkan
oleh transaksi peripheral (transaksi di luar operasi utama atau operasi
sentral perusahaan) atau transaksi insidentil (transaksi yang
keterjadiannya jarang) dan dari seluruh transaksi lainnya, serta peristiwa
maupun keadaan-keadaan lainnya yang mempengaruhi entitas, tidak
termasuk yang berasal dari beban atau distribusi kepada pemilik.
The Basic Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Equity = + Provides the underlying framework for recording and
The Basic Accounting Equation
Assets
Liabilities
Equity
=
+
Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing
economic events.
Assets
Resources a business owns.
Provide future services or benefits.
Cash, Inventory, Equipment, etc.
The Basic Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Equity = + Provides the underlying framework for recording and
The Basic Accounting Equation
Assets
Liabilities
Equity
=
+
Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing
economic events.
Liabilities
Claims against assets (debts and obligations).
Creditors - party to whom money is owed.
Accounts payable, Notes payable, etc.
The Basic Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Equity = + Provides the underlying framework for recording and
The Basic Accounting Equation
Assets
Liabilities
Equity
=
+
Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing
economic events.
Equity
Ownership claim on total assets.
Referred to as residual equity.
Share capital and retained earnings.
The Basic Accounting Equation Illustration 1-7 Revenues result from business activities entered into for the purpose
The Basic Accounting Equation
Illustration 1-7
Revenues result from business activities entered into for the purpose
of earning income.
Generally results from selling merchandise, performing services,
renting property, and lending money.
The Basic Accounting Equation Illustration 1-7 Expenses are the cost of assets consumed or services used
The Basic Accounting Equation
Illustration 1-7
Expenses are the cost of assets consumed or services used in the
process of earning revenue.
Common expenses are salaries expense, rent expense, utilities
expense, tax expense, etc.
The Basic Accounting Equation Illustration 1-7 Dividends are the distribution of cash or other assets to
The Basic Accounting Equation
Illustration 1-7
Dividends are the distribution of cash or other assets to shareholders.
Reduce retained earnings
Not an expense
Third Level: Recognition, Measurement, and Disclosure Concepts These concepts explain how companies should recognize, measure, and
Third Level: Recognition, Measurement,
and Disclosure Concepts
These concepts explain how companies should recognize,
measure, and report financial elements and events.
Recognition, Measurement, and Disclosure Concepts
ASSUMPTIONS
PRINCIPLES
CONSTRAINTS
1.
Economic entity
1.
Measurement
1. Cost
2.
Going concern
2.
Revenue recognition
2. Materiality
3.
Monetary unit
3.
Expense recognition
4.
Periodicity
4.
Full disclosure
Third
level
5.
Accrual
Illustration
Framework for
Financial Reporting
Third Level: Assumptions Basic Assumptions Economic Entity – company keeps its activity separate from its owners
Third Level: Assumptions
Basic Assumptions
Economic Entity – company keeps its activity separate from
its owners and other business unit.
Going Concern - company to last long enough to fulfill
objectives and commitments.
Monetary Unit - money is the common denominator.
Periodicity - company can divide its economic activities into
time periods.
Accrual Basis of Accounting – transactions are recorded in
the periods in which the events occur.
Third Level: Assumptions E2-8: Identify which basic assumption of accounting is best described in each item
Third Level: Assumptions
E2-8: Identify which basic assumption of accounting is best
described in each item below.
(a)
The economic activities of FedEx Corporation
(USA) are divided into 12-month periods for the
purpose of issuing annual reports.
Periodicity
(b)
Total S.A. (FRA) does not adjust amounts in its
financial statements for the effects of inflation.
Monetary
Unit
(c)
Barclays (GBR) reports current and non-current
classifications in its statement of financial
Going Concern
position.
(d)
The economic activities of Tokai Rubber
Industries (JPN) and its subsidiaries are merged
for accounting and reporting purposes.
Economic
Entity
Third Level: Principles Principles Measurement Cost is generally thought to be a faithful representation of the
Third Level: Principles
Principles
Measurement
Cost is generally thought to be a faithful representation of the
amount paid for a given item.
Fair value is “the amount for which an asset could be exchanged,
a liability settled, or an equity instrument granted could be
exchanged, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s
length transaction.”
IASB has taken the step of giving companies the option to use fair
value as the basis for measurement of financial assets and
financial liabilities.
5 Cara Pengukuran dlm Akuntansi 1. Biaya Historis (Historical Cost) • Yaitu harga tukar barang dan
5 Cara Pengukuran dlm Akuntansi
1.
Biaya Historis (Historical Cost)
Yaitu harga tukar barang dan jasa pada saat tanggal pembelian.
2.
Biaya Penganti (Current Replecement Cost)
Yaitu harga yang dibayarkan saat ini untuk membeli atau menggantikan barang
atau jasa yang serupa.
3.
Nilai Pasar (Current Market Value)
Yaitu harga jual aktiva yang berlaku di pasar saat ini.
4.
Nilai Bersih yg Dapat Direalisasi (Net Realizable Value)
Yaitu jumlah kas yang diperkirakan akan diterima dari konversi aktiva dalam
kegiatan normal perusahaan.
5.
Nilai Sekarang / yg Didiskontokan (Present/Discounted Value)
Yaitu jumlah bersih arus kas masuk atau keluar di masa yang akan datang
yang didiskontokan ke nilai sekarang dengan tingkat suku bunga tertentu.
Third Level: Principles Revenue Recognition - revenue is to be recognized when it is probable that
Third Level: Principles
Revenue Recognition - revenue is to be recognized when it
is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the company
and reliable measurement of the amount of revenue is possible.
Third Level: Principles Expense Recognition - outflows or “using up” of assets or incurring of liabilities
Third Level: Principles
Expense Recognition - outflows or “using up” of assets
or incurring of liabilities (or a combination of both) during a
period as a result of delivering or producing goods and/or
rendering services.
Illustration
Expense Recognition
“Let the expense follow the revenues.”
Third Level: Principles Full Disclosure – providing information that is of sufficient importance to influence the
Third Level: Principles
Full Disclosure – providing information that is of sufficient
importance to influence the judgment and decisions of an
informed user.
Provided through:
Financial Statements
Notes to the Financial Statements
Supplementary information
Third Level: Principles BE2-9: Identify which basic principle of accounting is best described in each item
Third Level: Principles
BE2-9: Identify which basic principle of accounting is best
described in each item below.
(a)
Parmalat (ITA) reports revenue in its income
statement when it is earned instead of when the
cash is collected.
Revenue
Recognition
(b)
Google (USA) recognizes depreciation expense for
Expense
a machine over the 2-year period during which that
Recognition
machine helps the company earn revenue.
(c)
KC Corp. (USA) reports information about pending
lawsuits in the notes to its financial statements.
Full
Disclosure
(d)
Fuji Film (JPN) reports land on its balance sheet at
the amount paid to acquire it, even though the
estimated fair market value is greater.
Measurement
Third Level: Constraints Constraints Cost – the cost of providing the information must be weighed against
Third Level: Constraints
Constraints
Cost – the cost of providing the information must be weighed
against the benefits that can be derived from using it.
Materiality - an item is material if its inclusion or omission
would influence or change the judgment of a reasonable
person.
Third Level: Constraints E2-11: What accounting constraints are illustrated by the items below? (a) Willis Company
Third Level: Constraints
E2-11: What accounting constraints are illustrated by the
items below?
(a)
Willis Company does not disclose any
information in the notes to the financial
statements unless the value of the information
to users exceeds the expense of gathering it.
Cost
(b)
Beckham Corporation expenses the cost of
Materiality
wastebaskets in the year they are acquired.
Summary of the Structure
Summary of
the Structure
Pengembangan Standar Akuntansi Profesi Kongress akuntansi Committee on Accounting Procedure SEC Accounting Principle Board Financial Accounting
Pengembangan Standar Akuntansi
Profesi
Kongress
akuntansi
Committee on Accounting Procedure
SEC
Accounting Principle Board
Financial Accounting Standard Board /IAI
Menyusun
Mengatur pelaporan bagi
Perusahaan yang akan
Dan telah go publik
GAAP/SAK
American Institute Financial Accounting of Certified Publik Accountant Foundation (FAF) (AICPA ) Pada tahun 1972 1939
American Institute
Financial Accounting
of Certified Publik Accountant
Foundation (FAF)
(AICPA )
Pada tahun 1972
1939
1959
Mendirikan
Mendirikan
Mendirikan CAP
Membubarkan CAP
FASB
GASB
Dan mendirikan APB
CAP menerbitkan
Acc Research
Buletine
1. APB menetapkan
ARB tetap berlaku
2. APB menerbitkan
Opini =standar
1. Ketetapan APB tetap
berlaku
2. FASB terbitkan Statement
Conceptual Framework
CAP bubar
of Accounting Standard
1959
APB bubar 1972
Daftar singkatan CAP APB FASB Committee on Accounting Procedure Accounting Principle Board Financial Accounting Standard Board
Daftar singkatan
CAP
APB
FASB
Committee on Accounting Procedure
Accounting Principle Board
Financial Accounting Standard Board
ARB
SFAS
Accounting Research Bulletin
Statement of Financial Accounting Standard
SFAC
Statement of Financial Accounting Concept
GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting Principle
Cara kerja FASB/IAI dalam menetapkan standar M 1 Menyusun agenda U L 2 Menunjuk gugus tugas
Cara kerja FASB/IAI dalam menetapkan standar
M
1
Menyusun agenda
U
L
2
Menunjuk gugus tugas yg melibatkan ahli luar
A
I
3
Menerbitkan Memorandum diskusi dan menyebarkan
4
Menerbitkan Exposure Draft dan menyebarluaskan
5
Menerima masukan-masukan dan mereview masukan
6
Mengambil keputusan :
A
K
H
I
Terbitkan standard
Revisi Exposure Draft
Tunda Pembahasan
R
Standard adalah hasil
FASB tak dapat
FASB menyeimbangkan
Kebenaran teori dan
Penerimaan oleh masy.
konsensus
memaksa
Siapa yang menyusun GAAP dan Conceptual Framework ? FASB GAAP/Prinsip akuntansi : Conceptual Frame work dibuat
Siapa yang menyusun GAAP dan
Conceptual Framework ?
FASB
GAAP/Prinsip akuntansi :
Conceptual
Frame work
dibuat oleh :
SFAS
APB Opinion
ARB-CAP
PSAK dst.
dibuat oleh :
APB
CAP
IAI
Kerangka Dasar
Penyusunan
Laporan
Keuangan
AICPA
Apa kegunaan Conceptual Framework of Accounting / KDPLK ? Conceptual diperlukan untuk 1. Mengevaluasi dan mengembangkan
Apa kegunaan Conceptual Framework of
Accounting / KDPLK ?
Conceptual
diperlukan
untuk
1. Mengevaluasi dan
mengembangkan GAAP
2. Memecahkan kasus
yang belum diatur GAAP
International Accounting Standards Committee The accounting standards The International Accounting produced by the International Standards Committee
International Accounting Standards
Committee
The accounting standards
The International Accounting
produced by the International
Standards Committee (ISAC)
Accounting Standards Committee
was formed in 1973 to develop
are referred to as International
worldwide accounting standards.
Accounting Standards or IAS.
59
Standard-Setting Organizations Two Major Organizations: International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)  Issues International Financial Reporting Standards
Standard-Setting Organizations
Two Major Organizations:
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
Issues International Financial Reporting Standards
(IFRS).
Standards used on most foreign exchanges.
Standards used by foreign companies listing on U.S.
securities exchanges.
IFRS used in over 115 countries.
Standard-Setting Organizations Two Major Organizations: Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)  Issues Statements of Financial Accounting
Standard-Setting Organizations
Two Major Organizations:
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
Issues Statements of Financial Accounting
Standards (SFAS).
Required for all U.S.-based companies.
Standard-Setting Organizations International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)  Does not set accounting standards.  Dedicated
Standard-Setting Organizations
International Organization of Securities
Commissions (IOSCO)
Does not set accounting standards.
Dedicated to ensuring that global
markets can operate in an efficient
and effective basis.
Standard-Setting Organizations International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) Composed of four organizations:  International Accounting Standards Committee
Standard-Setting Organizations
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
Composed of four organizations:
International Accounting Standards
Committee Foundation (IASCF)
International Accounting Standards
Board (IASB)
http://www.iasb.org
Standards Advisory Council
International Financial Reporting
Interpretations Committee (IFRIC)
Standard-Setting Organizations
Standard-Setting Organizations
Due Process Illustration International Standard-Setting Structure
Due Process
Illustration
International
Standard-Setting
Structure
Types of Pronouncements Issued by the IASB: International Financial Reporting Standards. Framework for financial reporting. International
Types of Pronouncements
Issued by the IASB:
International Financial Reporting Standards.
Framework for financial reporting.
International financial reporting interpretations.
Types of Pronouncements Hierarchy of IFRS Companies first look to: 1. International Financial Reporting Standards; 2.
Types of Pronouncements
Hierarchy of IFRS
Companies first look to:
1.
International Financial Reporting Standards;
2.
International Accounting Standards; and
3.
Interpretations originated by the International Financial
Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) or the
former Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC).
Copyright rpurwoko@2010 The eeennnnnd.
Copyright
rpurwoko@2010
The eeennnnnd.