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Ventilation and Dampness control Functions Factors affecting indoor airflow- airflow around buildings concepts of ventilation- ventilation design. Causes, effects and prevention of dampness Driving rain index. Capacity of drains, DWP and roof gutter

The process by which fresh air is introduced and contaminated air is removed from an occupied space
the intentional movement of air from outside a building to the inside

Functions of ventilation
To provide a continuous supply of oxygen necessary for human existence. To remove the products of respiration and occupation, that is; heat, moisture and carbon dioxide from people to provide a healthy, refreshing and comfortable environment To maintain the required air quality inside To provide adequate air movement Thermal comfort to cool the environment in warm humid conditions To remove foul odours, gases,etc To remove products of combustion from kitchen, chullahs, chimney, etc. To remove contaminants or harmful chemicals generated by processes

Air Change Per Hour-amount of air leakage into or out of a building or room in terms of the number of building volumes or room volumes exchanged. Indoor Wind Speed - The average of wind speeds measured at symmetrically distributed points on a horizontal plane in the normally occupied zone (a region lying between 0.6 to 1.2 m above the floor).

for health and for comfort. To meet the first requirement, the quality of air in buildings is maintained above a certain minimum level by replacing indoor air by fresh outdoor air to maintain certain levels of CO2 and oxygen in air and for control of odours or for removal of products of combustion during occupancy. Ventilation to meet this requirement is essentially needed under all climatic conditions, hence it is termed as health ventilation.

The comfort conditions necessitate ventilation for providing such thermal environment as to increase heat loss from the body and prevent discomfort due to moist skin, and also to cool the indoor space itself when the indoor temperature exceeds outdoor temperature. This type of ventilation is known as comfort ventilation.


Air Change Schedule

Space to be Ventilated
*Assembly hall/auditoria *Bed rooms/ living rooms Bath rooms/ toilets *Cafes/ restaurants Cinemas/ theatres (non-smoking) Class rooms

Air Changes per Hours 3-6 3-6 6-12 12-15 6-9 3-6

*Factories (medium metal work) *Garages *Hospital wards *Kitchens (common) *Kitchens (domestic) Laboratoeis *Offices

3-6 12-15 3-6 6-9 3-6 3-6 3-6

A certain minimum desirable wind speed is needed for achieving thermal comfort at different temperatures and relative humidities. For obtaining values of indoor wind speed above 2.0 m/s, mechanical means of ventilation may have to be adopted.

Comfort ventilation- necessary only during certain weather condition to improve thermal comfort Permanent Ventilation- necessary for all weather conditions Natural ventilation- by natural means Artificial Ventilation- mechanical methods

Comfort ventilation- for increasing the heat loss / gain processes to maintain thermal balance of human body Permanent ventilation -to maintain CO2 content within safe limit and to provide sufficient O2 content -to control odors -to remove products of combustion from chullahs, gas appliances, stove etc.

Natural Ventilation
the intentional flow of outdoor air through an enclosure under the influence of wind and thermal pressures through controllable openings. control both temperature and contaminants, particularly in mild climates. The arrangement, location, and control of ventilation openings should combine the driving forces of wind and temperature dependent on many factors including: building location with respect to pre-dominant wind directions, interior layout of offices, corridors, furniture, other potential airflow obstructions, sizing of windows and other openings.

wind driven ventilation and stack ventilation Wind effect: due to the forces of wind air enters through openings in the windward walls, and leaves through openings in the leeward wall The occurrence and change of wind pressures on building surfaces depend on: -wind speed and wind direction relative to the building; -the location and surrounding environment of the building; and -shape of the building. With large openings on the windward face, the building tends to be under positive pressure. if the openings are smaller than those downstream ve pressure

Stack effect/ chimney effect

Air movement due to thermal forces set up by difference in air density caused by temp difference between the indoor air and out door air the flow of air is in the vertical direction and is along the path of least resistance through chimneys, stacks, or other containers ,Stairwells, shafts, elevators increases with -greater temperature difference - increased height between the higher and lower apertures

Stack effect

+ves & -ves

Does not rely on wind: can take place on still, hot summer days when it is most needed. Natural occurring force (hot air rises) Stable air flow (compared to wind) Greater control in choosing areas of air intake Sustainable method Lower magnitude compared to wind ventilation Relies on temperature differences (inside/outside) Design restrictions (height, location of apertures) may incur extra costs (ventilator stacks, taller spaces) The quality of air it introduces in buildings may be polluted

During the winter season the following stack effect occurs: indoor temperature is higher than outdoor temperature; the warmer air in building then rises up; the upward air movement produces negative indoor pressure at the bottom; positive indoor pressure is created on the top; warmer air flows out of the building near the top; and the air is replaced by colder outside air that enters the building near its base.

Guidelines for natural ventilation

should be effective regardless of wind direction and there must be adequate ventilation even when the wind does not blow from the prevailing direction; inlet and outlet openings should not be obstructed by nearby objects; windows should be located in opposing pressure zones since this usually will increase ventilation rate; a certain vertical distance should be kept between openings for temperature to produce stack effect; openings at the same level and near the ceiling should be avoided since much of the air flow may bypass the occupied zone; architectural elements like wing walls, parapets and overhangs may be used to promote air flow into the building; topography, landscaping, and surrounding buildings should be used to redirect airflow and give maximum exposure to breezes;

in hot, humid climates, air velocities should be maximized in the occupied zones for bodily cooling; to admit wind air flow, the long facade of the building and the door and window openings should be oriented with respect to the prevailing wind direction; if possible, window openings should be accessible to and operable by occupants; vertical shafts and open staircases may be used to increase and generate stack effect; openings in the vicinity of the neutral pressure level may be reduced since they are less effective for thermally induced ventilation; if inlet and outlet openings are of nearly equal areas, a balanced and greater ventilation can be obtained.

Mechanical Ventilation
Air moved by motor driven fans Individual systems- fans Centralized systems-filters ,Ducts , fans

Indoor airflow
Position and size of window Wind intensity and direction Obstructions Shape of building

Airflow around buildings

Shape, size of building Wind direction Orientation & Spacing of building Obstructions around

Airflow Around Porous and Non-porous Barriers

Reduction of Airspeed Upwind and Downwind of Obstruction