Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

What is an audio format ?

An audio file format is a file format for storing audio data on a computer system. The data can then be stored uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size.

3 major groups of audio file formats:


Uncompressed audio formats

Lossless data compression


Lossy compression

Uncompressed audio formats


There is one major uncompressed audio format, PCM . Pulse-code modulation is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals

PCM stored as

.AIFF
On Mac OS

.WAV
On Windows

.CDA
Audio CD

Examples
wav standard audio file container format used mainly in Window PCs. Aiff the standard audio file format used by Apple. It is like a wav file for the Mac raw a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually used with PCM audio data. au the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java Large in sizearound 10 MB per minute.

Lossless data compression:


It allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. For example, it is used in the popular ZIP file format Lossless compression is used in cases where it is important that the original and the decompressed data be identical

Examples
flac - a lossless compression codec. If you compress a PCM file to flac and then restore it again it will be a perfect copy of the original. Apple Lossless Windows Media Audio Lossless (WMA Lossless)

Lossy compression:
Lossy compression is a data compression method which discards (loses) some of the data, in order to achieve its goal, with the result that decompressing the data yields content that is different from the original, though similar enough to be useful in some way.

Examples
mp3 - By eliminating portions of the audio file that are essentially inaudible, mp3 files are compressed to roughly one-tenth the size of an equivalent PCM file while maintaining good audio quality. wma - the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft. aac - the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard owned by Dolby. atrac (.wav) - It always has a .wav file extension.

Common formats and their description:


The WAV format WAV files tend to be very large, since they are not compressed at all. WAVs are used where space is not a huge issue, or where compression is not possible for other reasons standard compact discs, for example, use an uncompressed digital audio file using pulse-code modulation (PCM).
The MP3 format MP3 files are ideal for sharing online, or in any context where space is at a premium, because they can be compressed down to much smaller sizes than WAV formats. The quality is reduced most MP3s are encoded at anywhere between 160 and 320 kb/s, as opposed to the 1411.2 kb/s of a WAV file but for many people the loss of sound fidelity is unnoticeable, especially with cheaper speakers.

AAC It is a newer compression system, and is generally agreed upon as having a higherquality sound at the same compression levels as MP3. Windows Media Audio (.wma) Windows Media Audio (.wma) was developed to compete with the MP3 format for Windows Media Player. Microsoft claims that the WMA files are compressed three times more than MP3s yet retain their original sound quality.

MP3 VS AAC
Is aac better ?
It's advantage is that AAC files are of smaller size but of comparatively good. 128kbps mp3 = 96kbps AAC without little noticeable loss of quality, and the file will be 600kb ~ 750kb smaller in size. If you convert 192kbps mp3 to AAC the target file will be of 96kbps with tiny loss of sound quality, but HALF of the mp3 file size.

Ring tone encoding formats


AAC: Some phones like the Sony Ericsson W810i support ring tones in ".m4a" AAC format. The iPhone supports ring tones in ".m4r" AAC format. AMR: Audio compression format specialized in speech used by Nokia before mp3 became standard. MID / MIDI: Popular sound format. eMelody: Older monophonic Ericsson format.

In telecommunications and computing, bitrate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. How does bit rate effect file size ?
For a 128kbps MP3/AAC file, each second of audio requires 128kilobits of data. We are talking about kiloBITS here, not kilobytes (there are 8 bits in a byte).

Relation b/w size of file and bit rate


x = length of song (in seconds) y = bitrate (in kilobits per second) z = resultant file size (in kilobytes) z = (x * y) / 8

Example
So if you have a 5 minute song, encoding at 128kbps, you would do this as follows: 5 minutes = 300 seconds 128kbps * 300 seconds = 38,400 kilobits of data 38,400 kilobits / 8 = 4,800 kb To take this one step further, you can convert this into Megabytes by dividing by 1,024, so 4800/1024 = 4.6875 Mb

Wav: standard audio file container format used mainly in Windows PCs. Ogg:-- a free, open source container format supporting a variety of codecs Mpc: -- Musepack or MPC (formerly known as MPEGplus Flac:--Free Lossless Audio Codec Aiff:-- the standard audio file format used by Apple Raw:-- a raw file can contain audio in any codec but is usually used with PCM audio data Au:-- the standard audio file format used by Sun, Unix and Java mp3 - the MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for downloading and storing music. gsm - designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. dct - A variable codec format designed for dictation. wma - the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft aac - the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard owned by Dolby. atrac (.wav) - the older style Sony ATRAC format ra - a Real Audio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet ram - a text file that contains a link to the Internet address where the Real Audio file is stored dss - Digital Speech Standard files are an Olympus proprietary format. msv - a Sony proprietary format for Memory Stick compressed voice files dvf - a Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders.

List of audio formats

mp3 - the MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for downloading and storing music. gsm - designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. dct - A variable codec format designed for dictation. wma - the popular Windows Media Audio format owned by Microsoft aac - the Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG4 audio standard owned by Dolby. atrac (.wav) - the older style Sony ATRAC format ra - a Real Audio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet ram - a text file that contains a link to the Internet address where the Real Audio file is stored dss - Digital Speech Standard files are an Olympus proprietary format. msv - a Sony proprietary format for Memory Stick compressed voice files dvf - a Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders. KWS: Kyocera's ringer format Morse code: Text files with a .MORSE extension get converted into morse code songs MOT: An older ringer format for Motorola phones. Nokia / SCKL / OTT: Nokia Smart Messaging format

PDB: Palm database. This is the format used to load ring tones on PDA phones PMD: Format co-created by Qualcomm and Japanese company Faith QCP: File format generated by Qualcomm PureVoice software. RTTTL: A popular text format for ring tones RTX: Similar to RTTTL with some advanced features. Also the octaves are different on RTX. Samsung1 & Samsung2: Samsung keypress format Siemens Keypress: Can create and read in a Siemens text file format Siemens SEO: Siemens SEO binary format SMAF: Yamaha music format that combines MIDI with instrument sound data (aka Module files) SRT: Sipura ringtone for Sipura Technology VoIP phones

Video Formats
AVI:- Audio Video Interleaved, is developed
by Microsoft in 1992 Advantages High image quality Application in multi-platforms Disadvantages Large volume higher-version Windows Media Player simply cant play AVI videos which are edited with earlier codes, and vise versa

MPEG, Moving Picture Expert Group Is the format of VCD, SVCD, DVD This format applies lossy compression to reduce redundant info in active images, and to express it more clearly MPEG makes use of the fact that the two contiguous images are almost the same MOV, developed by Apple features a high compression ratio and near perfect definition most outstanding trait is its trans-platform ability, supporting Windows other than its intimate pal MacOS.

WMA

ASF
WMV

Is an extensible file format designed primarily for storing and playing synchronized digital media stream. ASF is the container format for Windows Media Audio and Windows Media Videobased content. (WMA,WMV)

Mobile video formats

3GPP (.3gp) It was developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project, hence the name 3GPP. Flash Lite Flash Lite is a streamlined version of Flash that was developed specifically for mobile phones and portable devices. The full version of Flash of course is the single most common online video file format. It is designated by an .FLV file extension

MPEG-4 Is a good sharing format for mobile video Also commonly used for online video in general but is one of the smaller formats so it works well for mobile video too.
MP4 Defines the storage of MPEG-4 audio, scenes and multimedia. The entire scene is described by an initial object descriptor (IOD). This is stored in a special box within the movie atom in MP4 files.

The latest
H.264 Coding Format Also known as MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (for Advanced Video Coding). Provide good video quality at substantially lower bit rates than previous standards. Provides quarter-pixel precision for motion compensation enables very precise description of the displacements of moving areas. More attractive for video network delivery and for delivery of HD, high definition video