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An Introduction to Scrum

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Were losing the relay race

The relay race approach to product developmentmay conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic or rugby approachwhere a team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forthmay Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, better serve todays competitive The New New Product Development Harvard requirements. Game, 1986. Business Review, January

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Scrum in 100 Scrum is an agile process that allows us to words delivering the highest business focus on
value in the shortest time. It allows us to rapidly and repeatedly inspect actual working software (every two weeks to one month). The business sets the priorities. Teams self-organize to determine the best way to deliver the highest priority features. Every two weeks to a month anyone can see real working software and decide to release it as is or continue to enhance it for another sprint.
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Scrum origins
Jeff Sutherland Ken Schwaber

Initial scrums at Easel Corp in 1993 IDX and 500+ people doing Scrum ADM Scrum presented at OOPSLA 96 with Sutherland Author of three books on Scrum Scrum patterns in PLOPD4

Mike Beedle

Ken Schwaber and Mike Cohn

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Co-founded Scrum Alliance in 2002, initially within the Agile Alliance

Scrum has been used for:

Commercial software In-house development Contract development Fixed-price projects Financial applications ISO 9001-certified applications Embedded systems 24x7 systems with 99.999% uptime requirements the Joint Strike Fighter

Video game development FDA-approved, life-critical systems Satellite-control software Websites Handheld software Mobile phones Network switching applications ISV applications Some of the largest applications in use

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Self-organizing teams Product progresses in a series of two
week sprints Requirements are captured as items in a list of product backlog No specific engineering practices prescribed Uses generative rules to create an agile environment for delivering projects One of the agile processes others Mountain Goat Software, include XP, Kanban, LEAN LLC

The Agile Manifestoa statement of values

Individuals and interactions Working software Customer collaboration Responding to change


Process and tools Comprehensive documentation Contract negotiation Following a plan




Source: Mountain Goat Software,

Sprint goal Return Cancel Return Gift wrap Coupons Gift wrap Cancel Product backlog
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24 hours

Sprint 2 weeks

Sprint backlog Coupons

Potentially shippable product increment

Putting it all together

Image available at

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Scrum projects make progress in a

series of sprints

Analogous to Extreme Programming

Typical duration is 2 weeks A constant duration leads to a better


Product is designed, coded, and

tested during the sprint
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Sequential vs. overlapping developmentCode Requirement Design



Rather than doing all of one thing at a time... ...Scrum teams do a little of everything all the time
Source: The New New Product Development Game by Takeuchi and Nonaka. Harvard Business Review, January 1986.

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No changes during a sprint


Plan sprint durations around how long

you can commit to keeping change out of the sprint
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Scrum framework


owner ScrumMaster Ceremonie Team s Sprint planning Sprint demo Sprint retrospective Daily scrum Artifacts meeting Product backlog Sprint backlog Burndown charts
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Define the features of the product (writes


Product owner

Decide on release date and content (what

and when, but not how much) product (ROI) value

Beresponsible for the profitability of the Prioritize features according to market Adjustfeatures and priority every
iteration, as needed

Accept or reject work results

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The ScrumMaster
Responsible for enacting Scrum values
and practices sprints

With team consensus, sets velocity for Removes impediments Ensure that the team is fully functional
and productive and functions
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Enable close cooperation across all roles Shield the team from external

The team

Typically 5-9 people Cross-functional:

designers, etc.

Programmers, testers, user experience

Members should be full-time May be exceptions (e.g., database

Teams are self-organizing

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Membership should change only

between sprints

Ideally, no titles but rarely a possibility

Scrum framework


owner ScrumMaster Ceremonie Team s Sprint planning Sprint demo Sprint retrospective Daily scrum Artifacts meeting Product backlog
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Sprint backlog Burndown charts

Team capacity Product backlog Business condition s Current product Technology

Sprint planning meeting

Sprint prioritization Analyze and evaluate product backlog Select sprint goal Sprint planning

Sprint goal

Decide how to achieve

sprint goal (design) Create sprint backlog (tasks) from product backlog items (user stories / features) Estimate sprint backlog

Sprint backlo g

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Sprint planning

Team selects items from the product

hours) Collaboratively, not done alone by the ScrumMaster

backlog they can commit to completing Sprint backlog is created

Tasks are identified and each is estimated (1-16

High-level design is considered As a vacation

planner, I want to see photos of the hotels.

Code the middle tier (8 hours) Code the user interface (4) Write test fixtures (4) Code the foo class (6) Update performance tests (4)

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Definition of Done
Code checked in Successful build Pass all automated unit and

integration tests with 80+% Code coverage

All manual tests executed and passed Complete Documentation Accepted by the product owner
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The daily scrum

Daily 15-minutes (max) Stand-up

Not for problem solving

product owner, can talk

No discussions of issues until breakouts Whole world is invited Only team members, ScrumMaster,

Helps avoid other unnecessary

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Everyone answers 3 questions

What did you do yesterday? What will you do today? Is anything in your way?

1 2 3

These are not status for ScrumMaster/PO

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They are commitments in front of peers

The sprint review (Demo)

Team presents what it accomplished

during the sprint Typically takes the form of a demo of new features or underlying architecture Informal

Whole team participates (QA can

2-hour prep time rule No slides

demo) Mountain Goat Software, GXS will have a consolidated demo LLC

Sprint retrospective
Periodically take a look at what is and
is not working Typically 1530 minutes (Timebox it) Done after every sprint (or just before

Whole team participates

Examples: long meetings, bad stories

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ScrumMaster Product owner Team Possibly customers and others

Start / Stop / Continue

Whole team gathers and discusses
what theyd like to:

Start doing Stop doing

This is just one of many ways to do a sprint retrospective.
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Continue doing

Scrum framework


owner ScrumMaster Ceremonie Team s Sprint planning Sprint review Sprint retrospective Daily scrum Artifacts meeting Product backlog Sprint backlog Burndown charts
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Product backlog
The requirements A list of all desired work
on the project Ideally expressed such that each item has value to the users or customers of the product Prioritized by the product owner Reprioritized at the start of each sprint

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This is the product backlog

A sample product backlog

Backlog item
Allow a guest to make a reservation As a guest, I want to cancel a reservation. As a guest, I want to change the dates of a reservation. As a hotel employee, I can run RevPAR reports (revenue-peravailable-room) Improve exception handling ... ... Mountain Goat Software,

3 5 3 8

8 30 50

Story Points
Fibonacci Series 0,.5,1,2,3,5,8,13,20,40,100, inf Measures complexity, not Time

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The sprint goal

A short statement of what the work
will be focused on during the sprint
Life Sciences

Support features necessary for population genetics Database Application studies. Make the application run on SQL Server in addition Financial services to Oracle. Support more technical indicators than company ABC with real-time, streaming data. Mountain Goat Software,

Managing the sprint backlogsign up for work of their own Individuals


Work is never assigned Estimated work remaining is updated daily Any team member can add, delete or
change the sprint backlog

Work for the sprint emerges If work is unclear, define a sprint backlog
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item with a larger amount of time and break it down later

Update work remaining as more becomes

A sprint backlog
Code the user interface Code the middle tier Test the middle tier Write online help Write the foo class Add error logging


Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri

8 16 8 12 8 8 8 8 8 4 8 4 12 16 8 10 16 4 11 8

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A sprint burndown chart

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Code the user interface Code the middle tier Test the middle tier Write online help


Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri

8 16 8 12 4 12 16 8 10 16 7 11

50 40 Hours 30 20 10 0 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

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Typical individual team is 7 2 people Factors in scaling
Scalability comes from teams of teams Type of application Team size Team dispersion Project duration
person projects

Scrum has been used on multiple 500+

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Scaling through the Scrum of scrums

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Where to go next


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A Scrum reading list

Agile Software Development with Scrum by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle Agile and Iterative Development: A Managers Guide by Craig Larman Agile Estimating and Planning by Mike Cohn Agile Project Management with Scrum by Ken Schwaber Agile Retrospectives by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen Agile Software Development Ecosystems by Jim Highsmith

Scrum and The Enterprise by Ken Schwaber User Stories Applied for Agile Software Mountain Goat Software,

Development by Mike Cohn

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Contact information
Presentation by: Mike Cohn mike@mountaingoatsoftware.c om m (720) 890-6110
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