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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
EEE 5223
Control System Design
Chapter 2:
State Variable Models



Prepared by Chew S.P
01/03/2012



Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
System block diagram.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Dynamic system.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
An RLC circuit.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
RLC network. (a) Signal-flow graph. (b)
Block diagram.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
The Isim function for calculating the output and
state response.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Computing the time response for nonzero initial conditions and zero input using
Isim.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
The Design of State Variable Feedback
Systems
Controllability and Observability
Full- State Feedback Control Design
Observer Design


Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
State Variable Design
Controlling system with a control signal u(t),
function of several measurable state
variables.

State variable design:
Assume all state variables are measurable
and utilize in full state feedback control law
Construct an Observer to estimate states
Connect observer to full state feedback
control law ( full state law + observer=
compensator)



Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Controllability and Observability
State variable compensator employing full-state feedback in
series with a full-state observer.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Controllability and Observability
In order to achieve a system which is controllable and
observable, placing poles at desired locations to meet
performance specifications
Full-state feedback design relies on pole placement
techniques


observer.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
A system is completely controllable if
there exists an unconstrained control u(t)
that can transfer any initial state x(to) to
any desired location x(t) in a finite time
Matrix A (nxn) & Matrix B (nx1)
If the determinant of Controllability matrix
Pc is non zero, the system is controllable.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
E.g. 11.1 (Page 859)
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Observability
All poles of the closed-loop system can be placed
arbitrarily in the complex plane if the system is observable
and controllable.
Observability refers to the ability to estimate a state
variable.
A system is completely observable if and only if there
exists a finite time T such that the initial state x(0) can be
determined from the observation history y(t) given the
control u(t)


observer.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Cx y
Bu Ax x
=
+ =
-
Observability
If the determinant of observability matrix
Po is non zero, the system is observable.
(
(
(
(

=
1
:
n
o
CA
CA
C
P
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
E.g. 11.4 (Page 862)
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Full-State Feedback Control Design
Full-state variable feedback to achieve
desired pole locations of the closed loop
poles
Assume all states are available for
feedback. The system input u(t) is given
by
Kx u =
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Full-state feedback block diagram
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Plant without/ with state variable feedback
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Full-state feedback Control Design
Kx u =
Bu Ax x + =
-
Control feedback is given by

State variables model is given by
Thus, closed loop system:

x BK A BKx Ax x ) ( = =
-
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
0 )) ( det( = BK A I
The closed loop system is stable if all the
roots of the C.E lie in the left half plane
The addition of a reference input can be
written as


Characteristics equation is given by
) ( ) ( ) ( t Nr t Kx t u + =
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Pole Placement For Plants in Phase Variable
Form
Steps for pole placement methodology:
Represent the plant in phase variable form
Feed back each phase variable to the input
of the plant through gain ki
Find the CE for the closed loop sys.
Represented in Step 2.
Decide upon all closed loop pole locations
and determine an equivalent CE
Equate like coefficients of the CE from Step
3 & 4 and solve for ki



Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Pole Placement For Plants in Phase Variable Form
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
What is phase variable canonical form?
Recall Masons rule:



factors loop feedback the of sum 1
factors path - forward the of sum
1
) (
1

=
E
E
=
= q
N
q
k k
L
P
s G
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Ackermanns Formula
Another method of determining the state
variable feedback matrix


| |
n
k k k K ...
2 1
=
o
n
n
n
q o o + + + =

... ) (
1
1
| | ) ( 1 0 ... 0 0
1
A q P K
c

=
Desired characteristic equation


State feedback gain equation


Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Refer to E.g. 11.7 (Page 868)


Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Refer to E.g. 12.1 (Norman Page 640)

Given the plant as below, design the phase
variable feedback gains to yield 9.5%
overshoot and settling time of 0.74
) 4 )( 1 (
) 5 ( 20
) (
+ +
+
=
s s s
s
s G
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Step 1: Phase variable representation

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Step 2: Find desired CE
Step 3: Find the compensated system CE
Step 4: Compare to obtain feedback gain
matrix


Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Observer Design
Needs of sensors to measure directly all
states- not practical and costy
If the system is completely observable with
a given sets of outputs, then it is possible
to determine/ estimate the states that are
not directly measures.


Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
The Full-State Observer
) (
. .
-
.
-
+ + =
=
+ =
x C y L Bu x A x
Cx y
Bu Ax x
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
All rights reserved.
Modern Control Systems, Eleventh Edition
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop
Refer to E.g. 11.8 (Page 870)