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ASTM DISTILLATION

ASTM

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS International organization that is a source for technical standards. In 1921, ASTM D 86 Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, is approved. D 86 has become one of the most-used ASTM standards and a joint ASTM/Institute of Petroleum standard in 1964.

DIFFERENT ASTM METHODS


D 56 TAG FLASH POINTS D 70 RELATIVE DENSITY OF CRUDE OILS D 86 DISTILLATION D 87 MELTING POINT D 92 CLEVELAND FLASH POINT D 94 SPONIFICATION NUMBER D 95 WATER DISTILLATION D 97 - POUR NUMBER D 127 DROP MELTING POINT D 445 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY D 1218 REFRACTIVE INDEX D 1266 SULPHUR IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS D 1298 DENSITY D 1319 HYDROCARBON TYPES D 1322 SMOKE POINT D 1500 ASTM COLOUR OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

And there are thousands of other ASTM methods available

ASTM DISTILLATION (ASTM D86 METHOD)

ASTM DISTILLATION
(ASTM D86 METHOD)
The basic test method of determining the boiling range of a petroleum product by performing a simple batch distillation has been in use as long as the petroleum industry has existed. It is one of the oldest test methods under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02, dating from the time when it was still referred to as the Engler distillation. Since the test method has been in use for such an extended period, a tremendous number of historical data bases exist for estimating end-use sensitivity on products and processes.

SCOPE
This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates, aviation gasoline, aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphtha, white spirits, kerosene, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.

PROCESS
In this test, 100 ml of a sample is distilled in a standard flask at a uniform rate of 5cc/min. The distillate is condensed in a brass tube condenser surrounded by a ice-water system. First drop from the condenser must be available in 5-10 mins after heating started at which the recorded temperature is INITIAL BOILING POINT of the sample. The vapour temperature is recorded at each successive 10 cc distillate collected in a measuring cylinder. The test continued in the simple way till 95% of fraction is condensed. At this stage the heat intensity must be increased to obtain the MAXIMUM BOILING POINT also called END POINT. When the bottom of the flask shows dryness, the temperature recorded corresponds to FINAL BOILING POINT.

ASTM D 86 GENERAL APPARATUS

SIGNIFICANCE

The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives information on the composition, the properties, and the behaviour of the fuel during storage and use. Volatility is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to produce potentially explosive vapours. The significance of ASTM Distillation test is to provide a measure in terms of volatility of the relative proportions of all the hydrocarbon component of a product. In case of crude oil, this test gives quantitative analysis and in case of gasoline, it gives qualitative analysis.

PROCESS SUMMARY

Oil sample is heated in a glass flask. Vapours are condensed and collected.

Temperature v/s Amount collected is recorded.


Not applicable to products containing large amount of residue.

DISTILLATION DATA (OF ANY ARBITRARY FUEL)


Property
DVPE T10

Limits
7.5 7.8 psi Varies w/DVPE

Test Method
ASTM D 5191 ASTM D 86

T50
T90 FBP RON MON (R+M)/2 Benzene Aromatics Sulphur Ethanol

195-205 F
310-320 F < 437 F 91-95 83-87 87-91 0.9-1.1 wt. % 23-27 vol% 25-30 ppm 10 vol%

ASTM D 86
ASTM D 86 ASTM D 86 ASTM D 2699 ASTM D 2700

ASTM D 5580 or D 3606 ASTM D 1319 ASTM D 5453 ASTM D 4815

CRACKING POINT OF CRUDE (BY ASTM D 86 METHOD)

SOUTH GUJRAT NORTH GUJRAT BOMBAY HIGH ARAB MIX

340 C 367 C 372 C 322 C

KUWAIT

335 C

EQUIPMENT EVOLUTION

OLD BULKY EQUIPMENT

COMPACT ANALOG EQUIPMENT

MODERN EFFICIENT EQUIPMENT

GENERAL PARTS OF EQUIPMENT


FLASKS

DCP-100
DCP-100-G DCP-100-H DCP-100-I DCP-100-M

DCP-100-Q
D86 FLASK for GT instrument

DCP-100-Z19

D86 FLASK for HAAGE instrument D86 FLASK for ISL instrument MANUAL D86 FLASK

DCP-100-P
DCP-100-Q DCP-100-Z

D86 FLASK for Precision instrument


QUARTZ D86 FLASK D86 FLASK for HERZOG instrument

RECEIVERS

DCP -130-1

DCP130
DCP-130-H D86 RECEIVER< for HAAGE instrument/td>

DCP-130-I
DCP-130-M

D86 RECEIVER for ISL instrument


MANUAL D86 RECEIVER ( REQUIRES BASE ) STANDARD D86 BRASS BASE W/ VITON ORING, SPECIFY UNIT TYPE D86 RECEIVER for Precision instrument D86 RECEIVER for HERZOG instrument

DCP-130-MB DCP-130-P DCP-130-Z

PROBES

DCP-500-IA
DCP-500-GA DCP-500-GAT DCP-500-GAT3 DCP-500-HA DCP-500-HAT DCP-500-HAT3 D86 PROBE CLASS A STANDARD for GT instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A CERTIFIED, 1 POINT (100C) for GT instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A CERTIFIED, 3 POINT (0, 100, 200C) for GT instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A STANDARD for HAAGE instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A CERTIFIED, 1 POINT (100C) for HAAGE instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A CERTIFIED, 3 POINT (0, 100, 200C) for HAAGE instrument D86 PROBE CLASS A STANDARD for ISL instrument

DCP-500-IA

MISCELLANEOUS PARTS

DCP-110

DCP-115-A DCP-135-CY
DCP-110-A DCP-110-Z DCP-115-A STANDARD D86 CENTERING DEVICE CENTERING DEVICE FOR STANDARD TAPER JOINT for HERZOG instrument SILICONE SIDEARM STOPPER

DCP-120-K010
DCP-135-CY DCP-135-S

D86 KALREZ TEFLON STOPPER O-RING


D86 5ML GRADUATED CYLINDER, CLASS 'A' D86 CONDENSER SWAB / 10 PACK

HOW IS D 86 IMPORTANT ?
D 86 is used to determine fuel volatility across the entire boiling range of fuel.

A = Front End (020% evaporated) B = Mid-range (20-90% evaporated) C = Tail End (90-100% evaporated)

HOW IS D 86 IMPORTANT ?
The 10% evaporated temperature must be low enough to provide easy cold starting but high enough to minimize vapor lock as well as hot driveability problems. The 50% evaporated temperature must be low enough to provide good warm up and cold weather driveabiity without being so low as to contribute to hot driveability and vapor locking problems. The 90% and end point evaporation temperatures must be low enough to minimize crankcase and combustion chamber deposits as well as spark plug fouling and dilution of engine oil.