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Redhat Virtualization

By: Ankur Verma C.S.E- VI Sem 0902710018 A.K.G.E.C,Ghaziabad

Physical Vs Logical(Demo) Virtualization: The What? Virtualization: The How? Virtualization: The Why? Redhat Virtualization(Demo)

Virtualization Vs. Virtualization Future

Physical Vs Logical
A demonstration for Logical Volume Manager (L.V.M) is suffice enough to give an insight of how great the things are if scaled ahead the physical boundaries

Commands required for configuration:

Create the required partitions. #fdisk /dev/sda

Create the physical volumes

#pvcreate /dev/sda{5,6,7} Watch the pvsize and also the non usable size of the partition

Create volume group of the three partitions thus formed #vgcreate vg0 /dev/hda{5,6,7}

create the logical volume of the volume group thus formed using command: #lvcreate -L +50M /dev/vg0 -n lv0


We can even extend this logical volume thus formed using the following command depending upon our use: #lvextend -L +25M /dev/vg0/lv0 Display the logical partition which actually exists for use: #ls /dev/vg* Finally after the partition is created: mount a file system to it using command: mkfs.ext3 -L /lvm_data /dev/vg0/lv0 Mounting it on a directory to use. mount /dev/vg0/ /mnt

We are ready to store data into this logical volume.

Virtualization : The Why?

In Past
One operating system on one machine , so ,the OS had complete control of the resources in that machine. Various applications would run on that machine, but these applications could affect each other. Machine utilisation was very low, most times it was below 20%.
Even Now!!

Low server utilization, and

Overall increase in hardware cost, etc.

then came the era of


Virtualization : The What?

Virtualization, in computing, is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, a storage device or network resources.

The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and overall hardware-resource utilization.

Virtual Machine Monitor(or Hypervisor) Each virtual machine interfaces with its host system via the virtual machine monitor (VMM). Being the primary link between a VM and the host OS and hardware, the VMM provides a crucial role.

What a VMM Should Do??

OS and Apps in a VM don't know that the VMM exists or that they share CPU resources with other VMs VMM should isolate Guest SW stacks from one another VMM should run protected from all Guest software VMM should present a virtual platform interface to Guest SW

x86 modes: Privilege Levels

x86 processors segment-protection mechanism recognizes 4 privilege levels (0-high, 3-low level)

The center (reserved for the most privileged code) is used for the segments containing the critical software, usually the kernel of an operating system.

Outer rings are used for less critical software.

The processor uses privilege levels to prevent a program or task operating at a lesser privilege level from accessing a segment with a greater privilege, except under controlled situations.

Virtualization Types:
Full Virtualization Para Virtualization

Full Virtualization

Complete simulation of the underlying hardware. Every salient feature of the hardware is reflected into one of several virtual machines including the full instruction set, input/output operations, interrupts, memory access, and whatever other elements are used by the software that runs on the bare machine, and that is intended to run in a virtual machine.

Para Virtualization

presents a software interface to virtual machines that is similar but not identical to that of the underlying hardware.
The intent of the modified interface is to reduce the portion of the guest's execution time spent performing operations which are substantially more difficult to run in a virtual environment compared to a non-virtualized environment.

Virtualization : The How?

Major Hypervisors
Xen : University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Fully open sourced Set of patches against the Linux kernel
VMware ESX : Closed source Proprietary drivers VirtualBox: a free hypervisor from SUN Systems. Limited functionality KVM: Most used Hypervisor in Linux.

Xen Vs KVM

Hypervisor that supports x86, x86_64, Itanium, and ARM architectures. can run Linux, Windows, Solaris, and some of the BSDs as guests on their supported CPU architectures. can do full virtualization on systems that support virtualization extensions, but can also work as a hypervisor on machines that don't have the virtualization extensions.

If you want to run a Xen host, you need to have a supported kernel.
Though after kernel 2.6.23 ,linux has started to put in into the mainline.

KVM Hypervisor that is in the mainline Linux kernel. runs on x86 and x86-64 systems with hardware supporting virtualization extensions. KVM isn't an option on older CPUs made before the virtualization extensions were developed, and it rules out newer CPUs (like Intel's Atom CPUs) that don't include virtualization extensions.

If you're getting a recent Linux kernel, you've already got KVM built in.

System Requirements
Xen para-virtualization requirements
Para-virtualized guests require a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 installation tree available over the network using the NFS, FTP or HTTP protocols.

Xen full virtualization requirements

Full virtualization with the Xen Hypervisor requires:

an Intel processor with the Intel VT extensions, or an AMD processor with the AMD-V extensions.

KVM requirements The KVM hypervisor requires: an Intel processor with the Intel VT and the Intel 64 extensions, or an AMD processor with the AMD-V and the AMD64 extensions.

Red Hat

Virtualization with Red Hat

Red Hat Virtualization provides a complete package of almost all types of virtualizations
1. Server/operating system virtualization integrated into kernel and OS platform(as KVM)

2. Storage virtualization: Global data Red Hat Global File System/CLVM

3. System management, resource management, provisioning Red Hat Network 4. Application environment consistency with non-virtualized environments

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform

Server and storage virtualization extends across multiple systems

Shared Storage

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform

A fully integrated server and storage virtualization environment Multi Host/Instance Logical Volume Management Multi Host/Instance Global File System Multi Host/Instance Application Migration Provides a complete virtualization platform Server : Storage : Management

Simplifies deployment & manageability

Increases flexibility & scalability Integrates server & storage virtualization no special hardware

Installing an Operating System

Options Available:
1)GUI(Graphical User Interface) 2)CLI(Command Line Interface)

Basic packages Installation

# yum groupinstall Virtualization Libvirt qemu-kvm python-virtinst vir-manager virt-viewer

The dependencies are configured automatically during the installation process.

GUI Installation

Open the Virtual Machine Manager window. Select Applications System ToolsVirtual Machine Manager.

Add a connection. Select File Add Connection. The Add Connection pop-up appears.

Add a new Virtual Machine: Select Domainclick New

Selecting Storage Location and Size:

Selecting Virtual Network in Select Network:

Selecting Memory and CPU Allocation

Finalising the virtual machine creation

Working with our newly created virtual machine

CLI Installation

#virt-install --prompt

Open Source Virtualization


Virtualization It's gonna be even better!

Multiple Hypervisor Support
(Xen, KVM, ....)

Even better deployment

Cobbler next gen. Installation server

More manageble
oVirt (free platform virtualization management web application software developed by Red Hat)

VMware Vs. VirtualBox Vs. KVM

Domains for comparison:
Device Support Ease of use


Look & Feel

Performance Licensing and Support

I/O Performance Comparison

On Scale of 5(best)

Hows That!!!

The Enthusiasts
The Architects The Executives

The Followers


Persons Mr. Abhay Verma, IT (VIII Sem), AKGEC

Mr. Saurabh Singh

SENIOR ASSOCIATE , Headstrong Corporation Ltd,

Documents and Books: Xen and the Art of Virtualization
Paper by: Paul Barham, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory

Fedora Bible: 2010 Edition

By: Wiley Publication

Virtualization Guide: Red Hat Virtualization

Copyright 2007 Red Hat, Inc.