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Urinary System Anatomy and Urinalysis

Lab 8 Week of 3/19

Urinary System

Kidneys

Cortex and Medulla

Blood Supply

Blood Supply

Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra

Parts of the Nephron

Parts of the Nephron

Histology of Tubes
Thicker parts are simple cuboidal epithelium, thinner parts are simple squamous epithelium Areas such as the PCT and CD have lots of mitochondria for active transport

Urine Production
In the glomerulus the plasma is still considered part of the blood. Once it has been filtered across into Bowman's capsule it is called filtrate. Filtration: blood pressure pushes fluid (i.e. plasma) across a filtration membrane(the capillary membrane) Reabsorption: movement of fluid from filtrate back into the blood. Secretion: movement of wastes from the blood into

Appearance of Specimen
Color
Normal: straw or amber colored Reddish amber: urobilinogen or porphyrin Brownish yellow, green: bile pigments Red to brown : blood or blood pigments

pH
Range is from 4.5-8.0 Normally around 6.0 Diet can greatly affect pH

Odor
Slightly aromatic, will begin to smell like ammonia after standing due to the action of bacteria

Transparency
Normal: clear, may become cloudy upon standing Cloudy: bacteria, pus,

Specific Gravity
Determines the amount of solutes dissolved in the urine Water has a SG of 1.000 Urine is normally between 1.001 1.030 Very low: diabetes insipidus, nephritis (i.e. very dilute urine) Very high: diabetes mellitus, proteinuria (i.e. very concentrated urine)

Normal Urine Sample


pH: averages about 6, range 4.5-8.0 Specific Gravity: between 1.0011.030 Excess salts and minerals: Na+, K+, P04-, S04 Excess vitamins Small amounts of Urea

Abnormal Components of Urine Sample


Glucose
Normally absent, seen in diabetes mellitus, and sometimes after exercise or a meal high in sugar content Glycosuria: excess glucose in the urine

Ketones
Produced during excessive fat metabolism, diabetes mellitus Ketonouria: excess ketones in the urine If found with glycosuria, is diagnostic for diabetes mellitus

Proteins
Excessive exercise, nephritis, trauma Albuminuria: excess albumin in the urine

RBC
Almost always pathologic, due to trauma or urinary tract infections. Can indicate contamination with menstrual flow Hematuria: excess RBCs in the urine

Nitrites

Abnormal Components of Urine Sample


Leukocytes: usually only seen when there is an infection of the urinary tract
Pyuria: WBCs in the urine.

Can indicate bacterial infection such as UTI

Bile Pigments: often seen in liver disease such as jaundice


Bilirubinuria: excess bile pigments in urine
Bilirubin is formed during hemolysis of RBCs and is excreted by the liver into the gallbladder. Can be signaled by a yellow foam on top of urine sample after shaking

Casts: hardened cell fragments, usually cylindrical found in the urine


Almost always pathologic Can only observe casts by doing a sediment study see end of notes

Urobilinogen: produced in intestines, some is excreted into the urine and give urine its characteristic color. Some

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