Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Human Scale Development and Fundamental Human Needs

Manfred Max-Neef
From Real-Life Economics, Understanding Wealth Creation Ed. Paul Etkins and Manfred Max-Neef Routledge, 1992

Human Scale Development


GNP (economic growth) vs Development based on the greatest improvement in peoples quality of life. What determines peoples quality of life depends on how adequately their fundamental human needs are satisfied. Human needs inter-related and interactive Unsatisfied needs lead to poverties and pathologies.

Matrix of Needs and Satisfyers


Satisfaction/Needs

To Be
Physical and psychological health Solidarity, autonomy, balance, adaptability Self-esteem, respect, tolerance, generosity, passion, sensuality Critical mind, openess of mind, intuition, rationality Adaptabilty, humour, openess of mind, dedication, will Curiosity, imagination, humour, idleness Passion, determination, intuition, curiosity Sense of belonging, self esteem, differenciation Autonomy, self esteem, rebellious mind, tolerance, openess of mind

To Have
Food, water, shelter, fuel Insurance, social security, social rights Friendships, family, contact with nature, Litterature, educational methods, teachers Rights, responsibility, privileges, work, duties Games, shows, peaceful mind, parties Methods, skills, tools, gifts, work Symbols, languages, religions, customs, sexuality, values Equal rights

To Do
To eat, work, procreate Co-operate, prevent, take care of, cure Make love, caress, express ones emotions, cultivate, share Research, study, meditate, work, analyse Vote, express ones opinions, disobey, agree, co-operate Meditate, relax, play, dream Invent, build, compose, interpret Integrate, engage, self awareness, confront, grow Choose, take risks, be different, be dissident, disobey, self-awareness, engage

To Inter-act
Human interactions, social environment Homes, social spaces, social environment Privatelife, intimacy, being together, homes Universities, schools, family, adult training, placements etc. Grassroots organisations, trade-unions, political parties, churches, communities Intimacy, private life, free time, contact with nature Workshops, schools, creative spaces, freedom and time Grassroots NGO, daily life, stages of development, social rythms Temporal and spatial plasticity

Subsistence Protection Affection Understanding Participation Leasure Creativity Identity Freedom

Human Scale Development


Satisfied human needs; Increasing self-reliance (small settings and direct/participatory democracy); Organic articulation natural and common sense interaction bet. nature and technology, bet. global processes and local activities, and bet. state and civil society

Fundamental Human Needs


Inter-related and interactive all needs are seen as equal apart from subsistence; Deprivation or potential? Needs engage, motivate and mobilise people; Satisfiers are not the available economic goods but are related to everything which contributes to the actualisation of human needs (incl. forms of organisation, political structures, social practices etc.).

Matrix of Needs and Satisfyers


Satisfaction/Needs

To Be
Physical and psychological health Solidarity, autonomy, balance, adaptability Self-esteem, respect, tolerance, generosity, passion, sensuality

To Have
Food, water, shelter, fuel

To Do
To eat, work, procreate

To Inter-act
Human interactions, social environment

Subsistence Protection Affection

Insurance, social security, Co-operate, prevent, take Homes, social spaces, social social rights care of, cure environment Friendships, family, contactMake love, caress, express Privatelife, intimacy, being with nature, ones emotions, cultivate, together, homes share Research, study, meditate, Universities, schools, family, work, analyse adult training, placements etc. Vote, express ones opinions, disobey, agree, co-operate Meditate, relax, play, dream Grassroots organisations, tradeunions, political parties, churches, communities Intimacy, private life, free time, contact with nature Workshops, schools, creative spaces, freedom and time

Understanding Participation

Critical mind, openess of Litterature, educational mind, intuition, rationality methods, teachers Adaptabilty, humour, openess of mind, dedication, will Curiosity, imagination, humour, idleness Passion, determination, intuition, curiosity Sense of belonging, self esteem, differenciation Rights, responsibility, privileges, work, duties

Leasure Creativity Identity

Games, shows, peaceful mind, parties

Methods, skills, tools, gifts, Invent, build, compose, work interpret Symbols, languages, religions, customs, sexuality, values

Integrate, engage, self Grassroots NGO, daily life, awareness, confront, grow stages of development, social rythms

The Wheel of Fundamental Human Needs


SUBSISTENCE

FR E

ED OM

T PRO

O C TI E

LEASURE
ITY T EN ID

UN AFFECTION DE RS TA ND IN G
IPA TIO

PA R

CR E ATIO N

TI C

Satisfiers
Destructive or Violating satisfiers (e.g. arms trade, exile, censure, authoritarianism); Pseudo-satisfiers (prostitution, fashion, charity); Inhibiting satisfiers (authoritarian pedagogy, competitivity, protective family, paternalism); Singular satisfiers (army, insurance system, bottle feeding); Synergetic satisfiers (breast feeding, preventive medicine, democratic structures, meditation);

Destructive satisfiers
Supposed SatisfierNeed to be supposedly Arms race Exile Bureaucracy satisfied Protection Protection Protection Needs whose satisfaction it impairs Subsistence, Affection, Participation, Freedom Affection, Participation, Identity, Freedom Creativity, Identity, Affection, Understanding, Participation, Freedom Understanding, Participation, Creativity, Leasure, Identity Affection, Participation, Crativity, Identity, Freedom

Censorship Autoritarism

Protection Protection

Pseudo-Satisfiers
Satisfier Fashion Social Status Need that it seemingly satisfies Identity Identity

Mechanistic medicine A pill for Protection every ill Over-exploitation of national resources Stereotypes Prostitution Charity Subsistence Understanding Affection Subsistence

Inhibiting Satisfiers
Satisfier Need Needs whose satisfaction is inhibited Taylorist-type of Subsistence production Over-protective family Authoritarian pedagogy Obsessive competitiveness Freedom Understanding Protection Understanding, Participation, Leasure, Identity, Freedom Affection, Understanding, Identity, Freedom, Leasure Identity, Understanding, Creativity, Participation, Freedom Protection, Subsistence, Affection, Identity, Leasure

Singular Satisfiers
Satisfier Aid programmes Curative medicine Insurance systems Army Nationality Guided tours Gifts Need which it satisfies Subsistence Subsistence Protection Protection Identit Leasure Affection

Synergic Satisfiers
Satisfier Need Needs whose satisfaction is stimulates Popular education Understanding Protection, participation, Creativity, Identity, Freedom Subsistence Protection, Affection, Identity Breast feeding Protection, Affection, Identity, Leasure, Creativity Organisations Affection, Understanding, Educational games Leasure Participation, Creativity Protection Understanding, Participation, Preventive Susbsistence medicine Understanding Leasure, Creativity, Identity, Meditation Freedom Democratic Participation