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Introduction to Social Marketing

Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil

Outline
Social Marketing defined Behavior Management Tools: - Education - Marketing - Law Public Policy Perspectives Case study: UW traffic reduction

Social Marketing
Social Marketing applies the principles of marketing to address social problems by influencing behavior change. Social marketing requires:
A customer focused approach Voluntary behaviour change An exchange Individual or societal benefit (rather than corporate benefit or profit)

What is Marketing?
Marketing is the process of planning and executing the product, pricing, promotion, and distribution/placement of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. Social marketing applies these principles to individual behaviour change to benefit individuals and/or society.

Carrots, Sticks & Promises

Based on Rothschild 1999, other works by Dr. Michael Rothschild, the Turning Point Initiative, and work by Dr. Sameer Deshpande

Behavior Management
Three major classes of strategic tools
Education Marketing Force of law

What do they share?


Spread knowledge Change attitudes Alter behaviors

Law-Education-Marketing

Marketing compared to Education and Law

Proneness to behave Motivation/Opportunity/Ability Public policy perspective

Proneness to Behave

Prone to behave as Desired Easy to See or Convey Self Interest no/weak competition Need to Manage and Show Benefits

Resistant to Behave as Desired Cant See and Cant Convey Self Interest or Benefits

passive/active competition

unmanageable competition

Education

Marketing

Law

Behavior = Function (Motivation, Opportunity, Ability)


Motivation:
Goal directed arousal Self interest Group norms

Opportunity
Environment allows behavior

Ability
Target has skills and proficiency

MOTIVATION OPPORTUNITY ABILITY


yes

yes yes no yes

no no

prone to behave

unable to behave

resistant to behave law

resistant to behave marketing law

education

marketing

unable to behave

unable to behave education marketing

resistant to behave education marketing law

resistant to behave education marketing law

no

education marketing

Education vs. Marketing


Social Benefit vs. Self-interest
Get your mumps immunization so that we dont have an epidemic Get your mumps vaccine because your testicles will really hurt and your friends (you give it to) will hate you

Education vs. Marketing


Timing & Payback of the Exchange
Education typically shows a vague payback at some point in the future, ex: exercise & eat better and you will lower the probability of dying of a heart attack (someday) Marketing shows an explicit and short-term payback, ex: eat this cereal and you will able to fit into that dress for the office Christmas party

Public Policy Perspectives


Free Choice & Externalities
How to balance free choice with control of health cost externalities? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: Helmet laws

Public Policy Perspectives


The Tragedy of the Commons
How to balance free choice with control of resource depletion externalities? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: Overfishing

Public Policy Perspectives


Social Dilemmas
How to deal with situations in which there is a net benefit to society even though each citizen is inconvenienced? What are roles of law, education, and marketing? Example: One Tonne Challenge

Public Policy Perspective


Education: Clearly free choice Force of Law: Clearly coercive Where does (Social) Marketing fit?
Free choice with incentives? Coercively appealing? The pleasure of being targeted is all mine?

Case Study: University of Washingtons U-Pass program


Problem: Volume of traffic in Seattles University District University of Washington decided to use social marketing strategies to reduce traffic in the district in 1991.

Segmentation Process
Identify most relevant variables for segmentation Segment individuals Select target group(s) Select important secondary targets
Gatekeepers, influencers

Targeting
Targeting Criteria
Segment size Potential/expected growth or decline Competition Cost of marketing Fit with org resources/objectives

Segmentation and Targeting: UW program


Segmented based on affiliation with UW Segmented based on type of affiliation
Faculty and staff Students

Targeted all with UW affiliation


Different products based on type of affiliation

UW Affiliates

Students
Faculty and Staff

U Pass
U PASS Reimbursed ride home Daily flex permits

Marketing: The Four Ps


Product Price Place Promotion

Product
Behaviour, service, product being exchanged with the target audience for a price and benefit Must compete successfully against the benefit of the current behaviour Actual product = primary behaviour advocated Augmented product = tangible objects/services to support behaviour Benefits: Positive outcomes occurring from product use

Product: UW program
Actual product:
Alternatives to driving alone

Augmented product:
U-pass program Increased mass transit service at reduced rates Shuttle service

Benefits:
Save money (bus pass, parking, etc.) Help environment

Price
Cost to the target audience of changing behavior
Barriers to behaviour change

Can be financial, or more often related to other costs


time effort lifestyle psychological cost

Price: UW program
Inconvenient Takes more time Less freedom

Place
Channels through which products or programs are available (access) Move programs or products to places that the audience frequents, in order to ease access

Place: UW program
Mass transit line (more stops) Home (shuttle service) Campus parking lots (free for carpools)

Promotion
Communicating your offering and the benefits of behaviour change to individuals.
Promotional Methods:
Advertising, Personal contact, Promotional items/incentives, Publicity (free media), Direct contact

What is your message?


Be clear and singleminded

Promotion: UW program
U-PASS: For You and the U Promotional materials, including posters, brochures, and campus newspaper advertising

Commuter Information Centers


Emphasis on the programs incentives: lower prices and more commute options

Endorsement by University Vice President

UW promotional piece

Incentives and Disincentives


Incentives: Additional enticements offered to encourage trial and use of the product Disincentives: Deterrents introduced to discourage current (undesirable) behaviour

Incentives: UW program
Unlimited usage of mass transit during the month University parking rates increased significantly for single drivers (disincentive) Free parking to faculty and staff carpools Vanpools: Vans picked up and dropped off only 8-15 passengers at or near their homes. Cyclists: New bicycle paths through the University, free bike lockers and racks, free helmet ($5 for staff and faculty) with the purchase of a tune-up

Positioning
Based on PERCEPTION Perceptual map
Relative to own products (your other offerings or potential offerings) Relative to competition (behaviour you hope to extinguish)

Marketing: Perceptual Map


Automobiles
Price +
Fiat

BMW Lexus
Camry Subaru Reliability +

Esteem
Aspire -

Social Marketing: Perceptual Map UW Commuting Options


Cost +
Driving alone

Mass transit Carpool


Biking -

+ Convenience

Outcomes: UW program
Problem:
Extreme traffic congestion in the University District during morning and afternoon commutes. Situation affects University students, faculty, and staff plus local residents and workers and creates longer commutes, pollution, and frustration.

Desired outcome:
Reduce single-occupancy vehicles in U District

Measure of success:
UW single-occupancy vehicle use decreased from 33% to 23% transit use increased from 21% to 33%