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NUCLEAR POWER

BY B.Narasimhulu 08UU1A0207

INTRODUCTION:
Nuclear

energy uses an abundant, widely distributed fuel, and mitigates the greenhouse effect if used to replace fossilfuel-derived electricity.

They

further claim that the safety record is already good when compared to other fossil-fuel plants that it releases much less radioactive waste than coal power, and that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source.

HISTORY:
The

first successful experiment with nuclear fission was conducted in 1938 in Berlin by the German physicists Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann . On June 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid started operations at Obninsk, USSR. The reactor was graphite moderated; water cooled and had a capacity of 5 megawatts (MW). The world's first commercial nuclear power station, Calder Hall in Sellafield, England was opened in 1956, a gas-cooled Magnox reactor with an initial capacity of 50 MW (later 200 MW).

LIFE CYCLE:
The

Nuclear Fuel Cycle begins when uranium is mined, enriched, and manufactured into nuclear fuel, (1) which is delivered to a nuclear power plant. After usage in the power plant, the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant (2) or to a final repository (3) for geological disposition. In reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can be recycled to be returned to usage in a power plant (4). A nuclear reactor is only a small part of the life-cycle for nuclear power.

REACTOR TYPES:
There

are 2 types of nuclear-reactors in current use.

1) Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor 2) Advanced Gas cooled Reactor(AGCR).

Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR or CANDU):


A pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear power reactor that uses un enriched natural uranium as its fuel and heavy water as a moderator (deuterium oxide D2O).

ADVANCED GAS-COOLED REACTOR (AGR) :


An Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) is a type of nuclear reactor. These are the second generation of British gas-cooled reactors, using graphite as the neutron moderator and carbondioxide as coolant.

Various Nuclear Power Plants in India:


Power station Kaiga State Type Operator Units Total capacity (MW) 660 440

Kalpakkam
Kakrapar

Karnataka Gujarat

Tamil Nadu PHWR


PHWR PHWR

PHWR

NPCIL

NPCIL

220 x 3 220 x 2 100 x 1 200 x 1 220 x 4 160 x 2 540 x 2 220 x 2 19

Rawatbhata Rajasthan

NPCIL NPCIL

220 x 2

440
1180

Tarapur Narora Total

Maharashtra BWR (PHWR) Uttar Pradesh PHWR

NPCIL NPCIL

1400 440 4560

Some of the nuclear power plant projects which are under construction can be listed below:
Power station State Type Operator Units Total capacity (MW) 2000 220 500

Kudankulam Tamil Nadu VVER-1000 NPCIL Kaiga Karnataka PHWR NPCIL NPCIL

1000 x 2 220 x 1 500 x 1

Kalpakkam Tamil Nadu PFBR

Total

2720

Some of the nuclear power projects which are planned up for the future are as follows:
Power station Operator State Type Units Total capacity (MW) 1280 1280 6400 2400 2500 300

Rawatbhata NPCIL Kakrapar Jaitapur Kaiga NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL Total NTPC

Rajasthan Gujarat

PHWR PHWR

640 x 2 640 x 2 1600 x 4 1200 x 2 1000 x 1, 1500 x 1 300 640 x 4 10

Kudankulam NPCIL

Maharashtra EPR Karnataka

Tamil Nadu VVER PWR

AHWR PHWR PWR

1000 x 2

2560 2000 20600

ADVANTAGES:

Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little. This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first. It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant The operating costs of a nuclear reactor are relatively low. It decreases dependence on pollution-causing fossil fuels. It results in a nation's reduced dependence on the costly foreign fuel

DISADVANTAGES:
The The

problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one.

energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand. power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.. the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.

Nuclear

During

Nuclear Power Today:


Provides

almost 20% of worlds electricity (8% in U.S.) 69% of U.S. non-carbon electricity generation More than 100 plants in U.S. None built since the 1970s 200+ plants in the Europe Leader is France About 80% of its power from nuclear

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT:
Twenty-two

of the last 31 nuclear power plants (NPPs) connected to the worlds energy grid have been built in Asia, driven by the pressures of economic growth, natural resource scarcity and increasing populations. Of the new NPPs presently under construction, 18 of the 27 are located in Asia, while construction has virtually halted in Western European and North American countries. Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, demands for less pollution and a muchdiscussed end to fossil fuels.

CONCLUSION:
The

more we look to the future, the more we can expect countries to be considering the potential benefits that expanding nuclear power has to offer for the global environment and for economic growth.

The

decision to adopt nuclear power cannot be made on a one-size-fits-all basis, new nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and alternative resources are scarce, and where energy security and reduced air pollution and greenhouse gases are a priority.

THANK YOU