Linux Introduction

Presenter: Jolanta subtitle Click to edit MasterSoltis style

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What is Unix/Linux? History of Linux Features Supported Under Linux The future of Linux

Before Linux
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In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC Apple MAC was better, but expensive UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected No modification is possible without paying high license fees

who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix” Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software. an OS was yet to be developed .GNU project – Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman. Slackware. But still. e. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat. etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991.g. Mandrake. SuSE.

known as Linux version 0.0. Linus Torvalds.Beginning of Linux – – – A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix. a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC Minix is for class teaching only. a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki.1 . No intention for commercial use In Sept 1991. developed the preliminary kernel of Linux.

study and to change. Then thousands. Then hundreds of thousands –It was licensed under GNU General Public License. thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy.Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum " I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. . You would not get a high grade for such a design :-)“ (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) –Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp. Be thankful you are not my student.

… Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. etc .Linux Today – – – Linux has been used for many computing platforms – PC. PDA. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format – Red Hat. Supercomputer. Slackware.

If you run Linux. The effects of the dot-com bust. And the numbers multiplied every year. add your machine at Linux Counter Growing and growing… In order to encourage wide dissemination of his OS. . Linus made the source code open to public. IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen. Next year there were 1000. At the end of 1992 there were about a hundred Linux developers. Linux: No of Users Source: The Linux Counter Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide.

138712 users registered 155679 machines registered .

Improve the program and release those improvements so that others can use them.Linux . Study the program's source code and modify it if you need to. rather than be restricted in what you can use it for. View the program's source code." To qualify as free software by FSF standards. Share the program with others. you must be able to: • – – – – – Run the program for any purpose you want to. not price. . is a "matter of software Free software. as defined by the FSF (Free Software Foundation).

. nonfree version is Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (NJIT) Free version: Fedora Project. which is aimed at big companies using Linux servers and desktops in a big way. as it's not designed with ease of use in mind. The commercial.Red Hat Linux : One of the original Linux distribution. Debian GNU/Linux : A free software distribution. Popular for use on servers. SuSE Linux : SuSE was recently purchased by Novell. although there's a stripped-down free version that you can download. However. Debian is not what many would consider a distribution for beginners. This distribution is primarily available for pay because it contains many commercial programs. Mandrake Linux : Mandrake is perhaps strongest on the desktop. Originally based off of Red Hat Linux. Gentoo Linux : Gentoo is a specialty distribution meant for programmers.

Linux groups • .

com/ .redhat.html Distributions • • http://www.

Fedora Core • • Fedora Core is a free operating system / .

What you're looking at in a default Fedora installation is a Red Hat-customized version of GNOME. called Bluecurve GNOME. .Other: •Debian •Mandrake •SuSE The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux Click to edit Master subtitle style world: GNOME and KDE.

Word processor : Writer Email: XimianEvolution A Web browser: Mozilla Presentation program : Impress .

Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas. From top to bottom, the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel

The Menu Panel

Applications - The Applications menu contains a variety of icons that start software applications. It is similar to the Microsoft Windows Start menu. Places - The Places menu contains a customizable list of directories, mounted volumes, recent documents, and a Search function. Volumes that are mounted may be external USB drives (flash, hard disk, CD, etc.), directories shared across a network, or other media devices such as a portable music player. System - The System menu contains a variety of items.

System menu
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Log Out About Help Lock Screen Preferences System Settings: configuration tools that are for administrative purposes and usually require root access; that is, when those applications are started, the root password must be entered to continue.

org Calc is a spreadsheet tool Note: There is another way to add an application launcher to the menu panel if the application is already listed in the • Applications menu. right-click on the Impress is for creating and giving presentations • OpenOffice.Mozilla Firefox web browser • Evolution mail client and personal information manager • OpenOffice. Navigate to the application in the Applications menu. . and select Add this launcher to Writer is a word processing program • OpenOffice.

Home . It is possible to choose not to have any desktop background. and documents. Trash . .This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer.Deleted files are moved to Trash. clicking on Change Desktop Background lets you choose a different image or photograph to display on the desktop.This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default. such as music. For example. and by default users cannot access each others' home directories. There is a different home directory for each user. To permanently delete a file and bypass the file's move to Trash.The Desktop Area • • • Computer . These are also listed in the Places menu. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash. Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows. movies. Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows. Right-clicking on the desktop presents a menu of actions related to the desktop area. hold down the [Shift] key when deleting the file.






Office Software word processor. spreadsheet. presentation and database application .

Cal c .

Write r .

Impre ss .

MS Outlook Ximian Evolution •KMail • .


Web Browser: Firefox .


OOo Draw: Drawing .


and many other popular IM networks gFTP: Useful for grabbing files through FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . MSN. which is used to play digital sound files CD Player: The default CD player Sound Juicer CD Ripper: Burn your own CDs Messaging Client: GAIM supports AIM.Other software installed • • • • • Audio Player: The XMMS (X Multimedia System). ICQ.

Terminal Window 4 MONITORS .

All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments. Linux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using command to show the content of current directory with option .

TC shell (Tcsh).Linux Shell l l Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell – pw l s Bash. Z shell (Zsh) l l l Different shell has similar but different functionality Bash is the default for Linux Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell . d Zsh Kernel whoa mi Bourne Again shell (Bash). Tcsh.

File management .

Directory Tree (root) When you log on the the Linux OS using your username you are automatically located in your home directory. .

For example. Not all Linux distributions use this one. /etc : System configuration files. /boot : The files necessary for the system to boot. Libraries are just bunches of programming code that the programs on your system use to get things done. and all of your Linux computer's communications with the monitor go through that file. Device drivers are the files that your Linux system uses to talk to your hardware. where all of her personal files are kept. Fedora does. there's a file in the /dev directory for your particular make and model of monitor. So.The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • • • • • • /bin : Important Linux commands available to the average user. /home : Every user except root gets her own folder in here. . /lib : System libraries. the user who logs in with linda has the directory /home/linda. named for her login account. /dev : All device drivers.

/tmp : Temporary files and storage space. /var : Data that changes constantly (log files that contain information about what's happening on your system. which is where your CD-ROM drive's contents are made accessible. data on its way to the printer. For example. Don't put anything in here that you want to keep. Most Linux distributions (including Fedora) are set up to delete any file that's been in this directory longer than three days. . When you temporarily load the contents of a CD-ROM or USB drive. and so on). you typically use a special name under /mnt.The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • • • • • • /mnt : Mount points. many distributions (including Fedora) come. /root : The root user's home directory. /sbin : Essential commands that are only for the system administrator. by default. /usr : Programs and data that can be shared across many systems and don't need to be changed. with the directory /mnt/cdrom.

Home directory • • You can see what your home directory is called by entering pwd (print current working directory) .

/root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir .. Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time.move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory. display the oldest ones first . .Commands: / (root directory) Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system.

cat abc.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a .cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e.g.g. man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e. (dot) .txt show the content of abc.

indicated by a letter d at the .The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS Names in blue are directories.

Text editors 1. 2. Emacs VI editor .

ie/newusers/beginnerslinux-guide/ .linux.http://www.


VI Editor • Opens from terminal window . .linux.

Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows. Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock Problem #5: The myth of "user-friendly" Linux is Not Windows ! = .

6.0 .3.9-55 Open Office 2.NJIT and Linux • • RedHat Enterprise Linux 2.

Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that lets a user log in remotely to other computers on the" from the "Run." command in the Start Menu. You can download Tera Term Pro from the Public Download Section or you can run Windows' telnet client by typing "telnet afsx. You can download SSH® Secure Shell™ from the NJIT’s Public Download Section.SSH.. it has a command line interface. SSH® Secure Shell™ also contains an FTP client.njit.. . Telnet • • • • SSH (Secure Shell) is a terminal emulation protocol that allows a user to connect to a remote host via an encrypted and secure link.

– – – – Start SSH client. Select "Import License File." Browse to the location of the "license.dat" included in zip file. .SSH Secure Shell • Included License key must be imported. Click Help.



njit.2 – XWin32 .X-Win32 • • • You can log in to the Linux computers by using XWin Install X-Win on your computer ( Connect: Start – All Programs – X-Win32 8.