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Linux Introduction

Presenter: Jolanta subtitle Click to edit MasterSoltis style

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What is Unix/Linux? History of Linux Features Supported Under Linux The future of Linux

Before Linux
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In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC Apple MAC was better, but expensive UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected No modification is possible without paying high license fees

e. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat. SuSE. Mandrake.g. who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix” Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software. an OS was yet to be developed . etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991.GNU project – Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman. Slackware. But still.

1 . a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC Minix is for class teaching only.0. developed the preliminary kernel of Linux.Beginning of Linux – – – A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix. a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki. No intention for commercial use In Sept 1991. known as Linux version 0. Linus Torvalds.

. study and to change.Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum " I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy. Then thousands. Then hundreds of thousands –It was licensed under GNU General Public License. Be thankful you are not my student. You would not get a high grade for such a design :-)“ (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) –Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp.

… Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. Slackware.Linux Today – – – Linux has been used for many computing platforms – PC. Supercomputer. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format – Red Hat. etc . PDA.

Linux: No of Users Source: The Linux Counter Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide. The effects of the dot-com bust. . add your machine at Linux Counter Growing and growing… In order to encourage wide dissemination of his OS. And the numbers multiplied every year. Linus made the source code open to public. IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen. Next year there were 1000.If you run Linux. At the end of 1992 there were about a hundred Linux developers.

138712 users registered 155679 machines registered .

View the program's source code. rather than be restricted in what you can use it for. Improve the program and release those improvements so that others can use them.Linux . is a "matter of liberty." To qualify as free software by FSF standards. as defined by the FSF (Free Software Foundation). not price. Study the program's source code and modify it if you need software Free software. you must be able to: • – – – – – Run the program for any purpose you want to. . Share the program with others.

as it's not designed with ease of use in mind. . Debian is not what many would consider a distribution for beginners. The commercial. Debian GNU/Linux : A free software distribution.Red Hat Linux : One of the original Linux distribution. However. although there's a stripped-down free version that you can download. Mandrake Linux : Mandrake is perhaps strongest on the desktop. Originally based off of Red Hat Linux. SuSE Linux : SuSE was recently purchased by Novell. nonfree version is Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Gentoo Linux : Gentoo is a specialty distribution meant for programmers. which is aimed at big companies using Linux servers and desktops in a big way. (NJIT) Free version: Fedora Project. Popular for use on servers. This distribution is primarily available for pay because it contains many commercial programs.

org/groups/ .Linux groups • http://www.linux.

org/dist/ .html http://fedora.linux.Linux Distributions • • http://www.redhat.

Fedora Core • • Fedora Core is a free operating system / .ale.

called Bluecurve GNOME.Other: •Debian •Mandrake •SuSE The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux Click to edit Master subtitle style world: GNOME and KDE. . What you're looking at in a default Fedora installation is a Red Hat-customized version of GNOME.

org Impress .org Writer Email: XimianEvolution A Web browser: Mozilla Presentation program : OpenOffice.Word processor : OpenOffice.

Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas. From top to bottom, the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel

The Menu Panel

Applications - The Applications menu contains a variety of icons that start software applications. It is similar to the Microsoft Windows Start menu. Places - The Places menu contains a customizable list of directories, mounted volumes, recent documents, and a Search function. Volumes that are mounted may be external USB drives (flash, hard disk, CD, etc.), directories shared across a network, or other media devices such as a portable music player. System - The System menu contains a variety of items.

System menu
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Log Out About Help Lock Screen Preferences System Settings: configuration tools that are for administrative purposes and usually require root access; that is, when those applications are started, the root password must be entered to continue.

org Writer is a word processing program • Impress is for creating and giving presentations • OpenOffice. Navigate to the application in the Applications menu. and select Add this launcher to panel. . right-click on the application.Mozilla Firefox web browser • Evolution mail client and personal information manager • Calc is a spreadsheet tool Note: There is another way to add an application launcher to the menu panel if the application is already listed in the • Applications menu.

Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows. To permanently delete a file and bypass the file's move to Trash. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash. movies.The Desktop Area • • • Computer . These are also listed in the Places menu. It is possible to choose not to have any desktop background.Deleted files are moved to Trash.This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer. Right-clicking on the desktop presents a menu of actions related to the desktop area. Home . There is a different home directory for each user. Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows. hold down the [Shift] key when deleting the file. For example. clicking on Change Desktop Background lets you choose a different image or photograph to display on the desktop. such as music. and by default users cannot access each others' home directories. and documents. .This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default. Trash .






spreadsheet. presentation and database application .Office Software word processor.

Cal c .

Write r .

Impre ss .

MS Outlook Ximian Evolution •KMail • .


Web Browser: Firefox .


OOo Draw: Drawing .


Other software installed • • • • • Audio Player: The XMMS (X Multimedia System). MSN. ICQ. and many other popular IM networks gFTP: Useful for grabbing files through FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . which is used to play digital sound files CD Player: The default CD player Sound Juicer CD Ripper: Burn your own CDs Messaging Client: GAIM supports AIM.

Terminal Window 4 MONITORS .

Linux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using command to show the content of current directory with option .All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments.

Linux Shell l l Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell – pw l s Bash. d Zsh Kernel whoa mi Bourne Again shell (Bash). TC shell (Tcsh). Z shell (Zsh) l l l Different shell has similar but different functionality Bash is the default for Linux Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell . Tcsh.

File management .

Directory Tree (root) When you log on the the Linux OS using your username you are automatically located in your home directory. .

the user who logs in with linda has the directory /home/linda. Device drivers are the files that your Linux system uses to talk to your hardware. /boot : The files necessary for the system to boot. /lib : System libraries. named for her login account. . /etc : System configuration files. there's a file in the /dev directory for your particular make and model of monitor. So. /dev : All device drivers. /home : Every user except root gets her own folder in here. and all of your Linux computer's communications with the monitor go through that file.The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • • • • • • /bin : Important Linux commands available to the average user. For example. Libraries are just bunches of programming code that the programs on your system use to get things done. where all of her personal files are kept. Not all Linux distributions use this one. Fedora does.

Most Linux distributions (including Fedora) are set up to delete any file that's been in this directory longer than three days. /tmp : Temporary files and storage space. .The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • • • • • • /mnt : Mount points. and so on). with the directory /mnt/cdrom. many distributions (including Fedora) come. data on its way to the printer. When you temporarily load the contents of a CD-ROM or USB drive. /sbin : Essential commands that are only for the system administrator. For example. you typically use a special name under /mnt. /usr : Programs and data that can be shared across many systems and don't need to be changed. by default. /var : Data that changes constantly (log files that contain information about what's happening on your system. Don't put anything in here that you want to keep. which is where your CD-ROM drive's contents are made accessible. /root : The root user's home directory.

Home directory • • You can see what your home directory is called by entering pwd (print current working directory) .

/root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir .Commands: / (root directory) Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system. ..move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory. display the oldest ones first . Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time.

g. (dot) . cat abc.txt show the content of abc.cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e. man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e.g.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a .

indicated by a letter d at the .The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS Names in blue are directories.

Emacs VI editor .Text editors 1. 2.

linux. .


VI Editor • Opens from terminal window .

ie/newusers/beginners-linux-guide/ .linux.http://www.

Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock Problem #5: The myth of "user-friendly" Linux is Not Windows ! = .Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows.

3.9-55 Open Office 2.0 .NJIT and Linux • • RedHat Enterprise Linux 2.6.

.edu" from the "Run. ." command in the Start Menu.SSH. Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that lets a user log in remotely to other computers on the Internet.. Telnet • • • • SSH (Secure Shell) is a terminal emulation protocol that allows a user to connect to a remote host via an encrypted and secure link.njit. You can download SSH® Secure Shell™ from the NJIT’s Public Download Section. You can download Tera Term Pro from the Public Download Section or you can run Windows' telnet client by typing "telnet afsx. SSH® Secure Shell™ also contains an FTP client. it has a command line interface.

Select "Import License File." Browse to the location of the "license. . Click Help. – – – – Start SSH client.SSH Secure Shell • Included License key must be imported.dat" included in zip file.



X-Win32 • • • You can log in to the Linux computers by using XWin Install X-Win on your computer ( Connect: Start – All Programs – X-Win32 8.2 – XWin32 .