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Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

What is a Derivative?

A derivative is an instrument whose value depends on, or is derived from, the value of another asset. Examples: futures, forwards, swaps, options, exotics

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

Derivatives play a key role in transferring risks in the economy The underlying assets include stocks, currencies, interest rates, commodities, debt instruments, etc Many financial transactions have embedded derivatives The real options approach to assessing capital investment decisions has become widely accepted

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

On exchanges such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange In the over-the-counter (OTC) market where traders working for banks, fund managers and corporate treasurers contact each other directly

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

(Figure 1.1, Page 3)

Source: Bank for International Settlements. Chart shows total principal amounts for OTC market and value of underlying assets for exchange market

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012 5

To hedge risks To speculate (take a view on the future direction of the market) To lock in an arbitrage profit To change the nature of a liability To change the nature of an investment without incurring the costs of selling one portfolio and buying another

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

Forward Price

The forward price for a contract is the delivery price that would be applicable to the contract if were negotiated today (i.e., it is the delivery price that would make the contract worth exactly zero) The forward price may be different for contracts of different maturities

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

Terminology

The party that has agreed to buy has what is termed a long position The party that has agreed to sell has what is termed a short position

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

Example (page 5)

On May 24, 2010 the treasurer of a corporation enters into a long forward contract to buy 1 million in six months at an exchange rate of 1.4422 This obligates the corporation to pay $1,442,200 for 1 million on November 24, 2010 What are the possible outcomes?

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012 9

time contract is entered into)

Profit

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

10

Profit from a Short Forward Position (K= delivery price=forward price at time

contract is entered into)

Profit

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

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Agreement to buy or sell an asset for a certain price at a certain time Similar to forward contract Whereas a forward contract is traded OTC, a futures contract is traded on an exchange

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

12

CME Group (formerly Chicago Mercantile Exchange and Chicago Board of Trade) NYSE Euronext BM&F (Sao Paulo, Brazil) TIFFE (Tokyo) and many more (see list at end of book)

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

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Agreement to:

Buy 100 oz. of gold @ US$1400/oz. in December Sell 62,500 @ 1.4500 US$/ in March Sell 1,000 bbl. of oil @ US$90/bbl. in April

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

14

Suppose that:

The spot price of gold is US$1,400 The 1-year forward price of gold is US$1,500 The 1-year US$ interest rate is 5% per annum

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

15

Suppose that:

- The spot price of gold is US$1,400 - The 1-year forward price of gold is

US$1,400 The 1-year US$ interest rate is 5% per annum

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

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(ignores the gold lease rate)

If the spot price of gold is S and the forward price for a contract deliverable in T years is F, then F = S (1+r )T where r is the 1-year (domestic currency) riskfree rate of interest. In our examples, S = 1400, T = 1, and r =0.05 so that F = 1400(1+0.05) = 1470

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012 17

Suppose that:

- The spot price of oil is US$95 - The quoted 1-year futures price of oil is US$125 The 1-year US$ interest rate is 5% per annum The storage costs of oil are 2% per annum

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

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Suppose that:

- The spot price of oil is US$95 - The quoted 1-year futures price of oil is -

US$80 The 1-year US$ interest rate is 5% per annum The storage costs of oil are 2% per annum

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012 19

Options

A call option is an option to buy a certain asset by a certain date for a certain price (the strike price) A put option is an option to sell a certain asset by a certain date for a certain price (the strike price)

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

20

An American option can be exercised at any time during its life A European option can be exercised only at maturity

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

21

Options vs Futures/Forwards

A futures/forward contract gives the holder the obligation to buy or sell at a certain price An option gives the holder the right to buy or sell at a certain price

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

22

Nature of Swaps

A swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows at specified future times according to certain specified rules

23

Types of SWAP

Interest Rate Swap Currency Swap Equity Swap Commodity Swap Volatility Swap

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

24

Types of Traders

Hedgers Speculators Arbitrageurs

Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 8th Edition, Copyright John C. Hull 2012

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