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NERVOUS TISSUE

Elwathiq Khalid Ibrahim Department of Anatomy University of Kassala March, 2011

Central nervous system (CNS)

Basic Divisions of the Nervous System: CNS


Brain and spinal cord Integrating and command center

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Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Outside the CNS Nerves extending from brain and spinal cord Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Link all regions of the body to the CNS

Basic Divisions of the Nervous System: PNS

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Cells of the Nervous System


Neurons or nerve cells Receive stimuli and transmit action potentials Organization Cell body or soma Dendrites: Input Axons: Output Neuroglia or glial cells Support and protect neurons

Neuron

The Cell Body


Most neuronal cell bodies
Located within the CNS (clustered in nuclei) Protected by bones of the skull and vertebral column

Ganglia clusters of cell bodies in PNS

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Cell Body Structure

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Neuron Processes: Dendrites


Dendrites Extensively branching from the cell body Transmit electrical signals (graded potentials) toward the cell body Function as receptive sites

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Dendritic Spines

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Neuron Processes: Axons


Axons (nerve fibers) Neuron has only one, but it can branch Impulse generator and conductor Transmits action potentials away from the cell body Chromatophilic bodies absent No protein synthesis in axon

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Axon

Types of Neurons
Three structural categories of neurons 1. multipolar 2. bipolar 3. Pseudounipolar Functional classification 1. Sensory or afferent: Action potentials toward CNS 2. Motor or efferent: Action potentials away from CNS 3. Interneurons or association neurons: Within CNS from one neuron to another

Types of Neurons

Structure of Neuron

Neurons Classified by Function

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C. T. of Nerves
Endoneurium layer of delicate connective tissue surrounding the axon Nerve fascicles groups of axons bound into bundles Perineurium connective tissue wrapping surrounding a nerve fascicle Epineurium whole nerve is surrounded by tough fibrous sheath
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Structure of Neuron

LM of neurons

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Histo/frames/h_frame6.html

Neuroglia of CNS
Astrocytes Regulate extracellular brain fluid composition Promote tight junctions to form blood-brain barrier Ependymal Cells Line brain ventricles and spinal cord central canal Help form choroid plexuses that secrete CSF

Astrocytes

Ependymal Cells

Neuroglia
Microglia Specialized macrophages Oligodendrocytes Form myelin sheaths if surround axon Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes Wrap around portion of only one axon to form myelin sheath (PNS)

Microglia

Oligodendrocytes

Schwann Cell

Myelin Sheaths in the PNS myelinated axon

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Synapses
Site at which neurons communicate Signals pass across synapse in one direction Presynaptic neuron
Conducts signal toward a synapse

Postsynaptic neuron
Transmits electrical activity away from a synapse

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Two Neurons Communicating at a Synapse

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Types of Synapses

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