Lecture 2: Work with Files and Directories

Working with Files and Directories • Many commands refers to files and directories. • mkdir – creating a directory $ mkdir docs • ls – listing files and directories $ ls docs • pwd – show your current directory .

$ pwd /home/romeo • cd – change directory $ cd docs $ pwd /home/remeo/docs • echo – write its arguments to standard output $ echo This is the first message > note1 $ echo This is the second message > note2 Working with Files and Directories .

words and characters $ wc note1 1 5 26 notel $ wc –l note1 1 note1 . • wc: couting lines.Working with Files and Directories $ ls note1 note2 • cat – concatenate and display files $ cat note1 This is the first message.

1 romeo staff 27 Aug 22 02:06 note2 • man – find and display reference manual pages $ man ls .1 romeo staff 26 Aug 22 02:05 note1 -rw-r--r-.Working with Files and Directories • ls –l – checking the file attributes $ ls –l total 2 -rw-r--r-.

Programs designed for one system simply wouldn’t run on another. a command interpreter (the shell) and a set of utilities. operating systems were designed with a particular machine in mind.How It All Clicked • Till UNIX came on scene. . • Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie designed and built a small system having an elegant file system. • In 1973. they rewrote the entire system in C.

BSD. • The other brands of UNIX: Xenix.How It All Clicked • UC Berkeley created BSD UNIX. SCO UnixWare.2. BSD/OS. . Solaris. AIX. • AT&T unify their own System V 3. SunOS. FreeBSD. IRIX. HPUX. BSDi. SunOS and XENIX into System V Release 4 (SVR4). Ultrix. Digital UNIX. SCO Open Server.

The Internet • DARPA commissioned UCB to implement TCP/IP on BSD UNIX. • The incorporation of TCP/IP into UNIX and its use as the basis of development were two key factors in the rapid growth of the Internet (and UNIX). • TCP/IP is a set of protocols used by the Internet for communication. .

The Windows Threat • Windows – a graphical user interface (GUI) that uses the mouse rather than arcane and complex command options to execute a job. • Windows first swept the desktop market (with Windows 3.1/95/98/Me) and then made significant inroads into the server market (with Windows NT/2000). . • The MIT introduced X Window – the first windowing system for UNIX.

• Most UNIX vendors cooperate with The Open Group and also build products based on the UNIX standard. • The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a set of standard operating interfaces based on UNIX.Standards and POSIX • In 1992. . AT&T’s UNIX business was sold to Novell. The Open Group published the single UNIX Specification. Novell then turned over the UNIX to X/OPEN.

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