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Who are you?

Who are you? (from other peoples point of view)

How society effects human development, nature v. nurture, are we prisoners of socialization

Socialization is the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group- knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and actions appropriate for them Also Socialization may be broadly defined as the learning of skills and attitudes necessary for playing given social roles within a social group

The process through which the individual acquires culture, (knowledge, value, etc.). The socialization process is the way through which an individual learns as a result of interaction w/ the environment

The given social roles as well as the attitudes and skills will vary from one social group to another..
Does being a woman mean being able to build a house? No one set of attitudes and skills is better than any other but is adapted to that particular social context

Humans learning to be humans To be made social Socialization is developmental stages + learning/exposure

Potty training, reading, playing soccer My wife vs. me reading interesting example

Different social groups will also have different theories of learning as well as different ideas about child development and the roles children should play Nature and nurture effect human development Societal interaction is a key to human development- shown in studies of feral and isolated children Language, social contact and interaction allow humans develop in emotionally healthy human beings. This is known as the social environment (entire human environment including direct contact with others) Language is not natural it is learned The family is the primary agent of socialization

Playing a social role in a social group is about assuming a particular identity within that particular social context A big sister A class clown A bully

Although there may be general things all people in a social group should learn, people will learn different skills and attitudes as they participate in different social roles in different social groups

Learning different skills and attitudes is about access to participating in a particular social role in a particular social group Learning is therefore always fused to power relations Getting access, excluding access are often being negotiated and under conflict

One learns across the lifecourse, not just as a child

When one enters a new job When one enters a new phase of life: toddlerhood vs. elderhood

People participate in different social groups across their everyday lives and lifespans, and switch roles across those contexts.

Socialization is linked to a social groups social continuity and transformation reciprocally.

Types of Socialization
Deliberate Socialization Unconscious Socialization

Deliberate Socialization
Refers to the socialization process when there exists a deliberate and purposeful intent to convey values, attitudes, knowledge, skill, etc. (culture).

Examples of Deliberate Socialization

a) School situation b) Parents telling a child to always say "please."

Unconscious Socialization
Socialization which occurs as a result of spontaneous interaction w/no purposeful or deliberate attempt on the part of anyone involved to train, educate, etc.

Example of Unconscious Socialization:

The child learning to use vulgarity in a frustrating traffic situation by observing parents.

How do people learn?

How did you learn to be a man/woman? How did you learn the skills and attitudes associated with being your gender?

How do people learn?

By participating in that social group! Observation Some direct instruction, but much less than one would get in a school

Learning as participation in a social group

Legitimate peripheral participation One never fully masters the role one plays in that group; one is always learning: being a good mother, for instance. Over time, ones participation increases gradually in engagement and complexity

Why do people want to learn the attitudes and skills of the roles appropriate to a given social group?

Aims of Socialization:
1. To instill disciplines Ex. Don't walk in front of a moving car 2. To develop aspirations and ambitions Ex. I want to be a nun, rock star, great sociologist. 3. Tto develop skills Ex. Reading, drving, etc. 4. To enable the acquisition of social roles Ex. Male, student, etc.


Consensus Theory Derived from Durkheim, Parsons & Merton Stresses how socialization contributes to a stable society. Based on premise that all aspects of society institutions, roles, norms all serve a purpose and that all are indispensible for the long term survival

Conflict Theory
Power & Conflict Theory Derived from Karl Marx & Max Webber Views Socialization as a way for the powerful to preserve the status quo. Conflict is ongoing, persistent and a fundamental part of our society.

Symbolic Interactionism
Interaction & Interpretation Theory Derived from Blumer, Mead, Goffman Holds that socialization is a major determinant of human nature. Human behavior is determined not only by the objective facts of a situation but also by how people define that situation that is, by the meaning they attribute to it.

Theories of Human Development

Humans develop reasoning skills, personality, emotions, morals and a sense of self through social observation, contact and interaction. Major theories- Cooleys looking glass self, Mead and role taking, Piaget and stages of development, Kohlbergs stages of development, and Carol Gilligan stages of development.

Looking Glass Self and Role Taking

Looking Glass Self (1902) Each to a looking glass reflects the other that doth pass. Charles Cooley- coined the term. It is the process by which a persons sense of self develops from interactions with others. 1-Imagine how we appear to those around us 2-Intrperet others reactions 3- develop selfconcept The self is never a finished product, it is always a process

Mead and Role Taking (1934) In order to take the role of the other the person needs to put themselves in the other persons shoes Not born with this ability- during childhood this is developed through play Children first learn to take on the role of the significant other eventually take the role of the generalized other

Three Stages of Role Taking

Three and Undermimic gestures and words of others Three to Six- Take role of others, firefighter, superhero Games- play organized games that require them to take multiple roles

I and Me and the Mind as a Product of Society

Self is divided into two parts-I and the Me I is the self as subject, creative, active part of self Me is the self as an object
Mead drew the conclusion that not only the self but the human mind is a social product

We think using symbols. Symbols come from societies, like language. If society did not provide symbols we could not think The mind is a product of society

I and Me and the Mind as a Product of Society

Self is divided into two parts-I and the Me I is the self as subject, creative, active part of self Me is the self as an object
Mead drew the conclusion that not only the self but the human mind is a social product

We think using symbols. Symbols come from societies, like language. If society did not provide symbols we could not think The mind is a product of society

Piaget and the Development of Reason

Sensorimotor Stage understanding limited to direct contact. Cant recognize cause and effectbirth to age two Preoperational Stage do not understand common concepts like size and speed, do not understand numbers. Cant take the role of the other Two to age seven

Piaget and the Development of Reason

Concrete operational stage Reasoning ability remains concrete Children can understand causation Take the role of others and participate in games Need concrete examples to talk about concepts Ages seven to twelve

Piaget and the Development of Reason

Formal Operational Stage Children capable of abstract thinking Can talk about concepts based on general principles Children know right from wrong without needing concrete examples After age twelve

Freud and the Development of Personality

Along with development of the mind is the development of the personality Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychologist theory of the three elements of personality o The id o The ego o The superego

Freud and the Development of Personality

Id- all people are born with it. The inborn drive that leads us to seek self gratification. Ego- the id is blocked by the needs of others. To adapt to these needs the ego develops. It is the balancing force between the id and societies needs to suppress it. Superego- the culture within us. The norms and values we have internalized from our social groups. The moral component of our personality. Freud does not take into account the fact that social class and roles in groups underlie our behavior

Agents of Socialization pp.78-85

Groups that influence our orientation toward life- our self concept, emotions, attitudes and behavior- are called agents of socialization. Major Agents of Socialization
The Family The Neighborhood Religion Day Care School Peer Groups Sports and Competitive Success The Workplace

The Family
Study of how working class families and middle class families raise their children. Job type is a defining characteristic of child rearing style.

The Neighborhood
Parents try to move to better neighborhoods Children from low income neighborhoods are more likely to get into trouble, get pregnant, drop out of school and have a disadvantaged life. More affluent neighborhoods people watch out for each other more because the population is more stable. This keeps children out of trouble and safe

Religion influences values 40% of Americans attend church regularly Even people who do not go to church regularly religion provides a framework for morality Teaches ideas about dress, speech, manners that are appropriate for formal occasions

Latent and Manifest Functions

Latent functions- unintended consequences of peoples actions Manifest functions- intended beneficial consequences of peoples actions

Day Care
A study that followed children from age infancy to kindergarten reported that children that spent more time in day care than with their mothers were more uncooperative and unaffectionate toward their mothers. This was regardless of social class or the families social status A positive finding was the children scored higher on language tests regardless of income or social status. This is probably due to the social interaction with other children at day care.

School and Peer Groups

As children enter school the influence of the parents and family lessens When this occurs there is a transfer of values too those of the peer group Children separate themselves by sex group

School and Peer Groups

School gives children a broader perspective that helps them prepare for the world beyond the family Children learn universality- the same rules apply to everyone regardless of how special they may be at home Corridor Curriculum-What students teach each other outside of classroom Schools around the world reflect and reinforce their nations social, economic and political systems

School and Peer Groups

Boys Norms Athletic Ability Coolness Toughness Academic Achievement for boys lowered their popularity Girls Norms Popularity based on family background Physical appearance The ability to attract popular boys Academic achievement increased standing among peers

School and Peer Groups

It is almost impossible to go against your peer group Those who conform are insiders. Those that dont are outsiders. Standards of peer groups dominate our lives and influence our choices

Sports and Competitive Success

Sports teach valueshow to be a team player Boys learn to achieve in sports to gain prestige Encourages boys to develop instrumental relationships- those based on what you can get out of people Girls construct their identities on meaningful relationships, not competitive success

The Workplace
We learn different perspectives about the world from our co-workers and workplace Before we become engaged in a career we become involved in anticipatory socializationlearning to play a role before entering it. This allows us to become familiar with a role and become aware what is expected of us The more we participate in a line of work the more it becomes part of your self concept, people describe themselves by their line of work

Occurs when people learn new norms, values and attitudes to match their new situation. When new ideas become incorporated into the person, they view life as fundamentally different. Examples of Resocialization
Divorce Going to college Joining fraternities/sorrorities

Total Institutions
A place where people are cut off from the rest of society and are totally controlled by the officials that run the place. Examples
Boot Camp Prison Concentration Camps

Total Institutions
When a person enters a total institution they go through a degradation ceremony This is an attempt to strip away the persons identityshaved head, take away personal items, undergo examination in public, given a uniform All routine is standardized, takes away individuality This experience brands a person for life

Sociological Significance of the Life Course

When you live and your social location determine your life course. Being born ten years later or earlier can change the direction your life takes Social Location- your gender, social class and race- is also significant. Societies events will have similar effects on people of the same social location Individual factors also influence your life course. examples marrying early, entering college late

Are we Prisoners of Socialization?

We are not completely products of socialization- socialization does not go in and behavior comes out. Socialization effects us all, but we each have a self. The self is dynamic not a passive sponge, we are each actively involved in the construction of the self. Some social institutions, like the family, provide us with the basic elements of our personality. We voluntarily join other social groups that have an effect on our self. People can change the self and social location along with the options available within society.