Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

Urbanization and Challenges in South Asian Countries Country Overview Presentation on Bhutan

by
Mr. Kinlay Dorjee, Honble Mayor, Thimphu Municipality Mr. Kinzang Norbu, Director, Department of Human Settlement Ms Lhaden Pem, Chief Planning Officer, MoWHS 20th to 21st March 2012, Colombo

1.

Background

Countrys Development Vision are: Peace, Prosperity and Happiness Recognizes unique challenges of rapid demographic transition from a subsistence rural economy to an urban society. Hence rapid urbanization @ 7.3%

Estimated that by 2020, 70% of population will live in urban areas.

2.

Strategic Framework of Happiness through Urban Development

Must be prepared to meet the challenges posed by rapid urbanization The challenges must be met by measures that respond imaginatively to both push and pull factor. Possess an economic base that establishes conditions for self sustaining growth. Can be developed with minimum damage to the environment

2.

Strategic Framework of Happiness through Urban Development - Contd.

Are supported by efficient and effective infrastructure development Can serve as focal points for the provision of social services Must give greater priority to securing measurable improvements in the quality of built environment Preservation of traditional built environment and community spaces

2.

Strategic Framework of Happiness through Urban Development - Contd.

Build a society in which the benefits of development are shared through: 1) Responding to challenges posed by rapid urbanization 2) Ensuring equitable access to basic services 3) Responding to the needs of the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.

3.

Governance

System of Governance continue to evolve in local context demonstrating its capacity to adapt to changing needs and situations.

The devolution of new powers and responsibilities to the Local Governments and strengthening the management capacities that is becoming substantively complex.

4.

Urban Scenario in Bhutan

4 towns with full fledged Municipal Local Governance 18 District Towns with Local Body 8 Nos. Satellite towns 31 Commercial Centres or service nodes for rural villages

5.

Urban Challenges

Enormous demographic transition, Increasing unplanned growth and tremendous pressure on urban services against urban environmental degradation Provision of low-income housing Integrating the heritage into the evolving built environment because urban development have the potential to negatively impact the cultural heritage structures and systems Increasing urban crimes and social problems due to rising youth unemployment

5.

Urban Challenges -

Contd.

Weak urban institutional capacity at all levels resulting in poor service delivery against rising public expectations Conflict over limited land availability due to rugged terrains and requirement to maintain forest cover of minimum 60% at all times Weak urban trading sector

5.

Urban Challenges -

Contd.

Emerging trend of aging people becoming homeless due to negative impact of changing lifestyles leading to disintegrate the traditional extended family culture and values. Lack of some important policy and legal instruments such as: Planning Act, Building Act, municipal financing, etc. Urban society increasingly threatened by imminent natural disasters. Lack of adequate and timely financing

6.

Interventions to avoid negative effects of indiscriminate urbanization

1) Institutional Department of Human Settlement instituted to fully focus on concerns of the human settlement. Vision: An integrated and sustainable living environment that enables continued enhancement of our values and well-beings and provides opportunities for positive socio-economic development

6.

Interventions to avoid negative effects of indiscriminate urbanization - Contd.

Mission: Promote safe, secure, responsible and responsive human settlements through preparation of planning strategies and physical development plans that are consistent with the national development polices. 2) Induction of new planning and management instruments with provision for i) preparation of regional land use plans; ii) rural development plan, and any other informal settlements guidelines demanding development process that is becoming more complex.

6.

Interventions to avoid negative effects of indiscriminate urbanization - Contd.

3) Considerable progress has been made to provide equitable access to basic services and infrastructure 4) Higher density development land use plan with provision for: Housing for poor Quality/effective basic infrastructures Efficient road network and urban transport Enhanced environment

6.

Interventions to avoid negative effects of indiscriminate urbanization - Contd.

5) Economic development policy of PPP model through FDI, SEZ industrialization to generate vibrant economy and employment. 6) Adopt appropriate policy interventions to help canalize future settlement patterns. 7) Provide womens participation at all levels of urban development

Traditional cantilever wooden bridge

Tallest budha statue in Thimphu

Thimphu City

A District Town

A District town

Un-spoiled Traditional Village

A valley in Western Bhutan

Thimphu City

City at a Glance
Area = 26 sq km Population = 79,185 (2005) - 672,000 (overall) 40% of National Urban, 12.5 % Nat. Population Current population = over 104000 Density - 3,030 people/SqKM Growth rate = 10 - 12 % Sixteen Urban Villages Twelve LAP areas (3 funded by ADB & 2 by WB) Fifteen areas without LAPs (Need to prepare working plans)

City at a glance contd

Although we have about 12 LAPs at various stages of implementation the TCC is grappling with pressure from 15 areas where there are no LAPs.

Thimphu Structural Plan (2002-2027)


Planned based on GNH values
Sustainable development Balanced environment development Conservation of culture Good governance Different precincts (UV, E, G etc) Land use Permissible structure heights Environmental precincts

Development Control Regulation 2004

National Policies
29 % is protected areas (Parks and Biological Corridors etc) 60 % forest cover to be maintained for all times to come (Constitution) June 2nd is celebrated as Social Forestry Day (huge tree plantation activity in the country) Forest cover is more than 70% Emphasis on hydro-power (almost 100% electricity requirement for Bhutan)

Green Initiatives
Improve the availability of reliable, comfortable, and safe public transport to reduce use of cars No import duty on Green Vehicles electric cars are already in use (4 electric cars for city) Electric buses are possible options for city transport Govt regulation to reduce availability of wood switch to use of electric room heaters, switch to use of LPG & electricity for cooking Facilitate more spaces for biking and walking trails to encourage use of bicycle

Contd
Use of electric cremation (best option for Bhutan due to reliable and low electricity tariff) Plantation of 6000 trees in the city against 500 tress felled for development activity in 2011 Huge distribution of saplings of trees and plants to schools, government agencies for free (usually done during Social Forestry Day on 2nd June every year.

THANK YOU !!!