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WDM

WDM
:: BASIC OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ::









Light is used as carrier.
Fiber is used as channel.
Need of Multiplexing
For optimum utilization of fiber capacity.
To accommodate more data
channels/users.
Hence Multiplexing is to increase the
bandwidth/ to exploit the capacity of an
optical channel.
Types of Multiplexing
OTDM
WDM
Optical Time Division Multiplexing
(OTDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
:: WDM System & Components ::
To Exploit the total capacity of Fiber.
Capacity upgrade of existing fiber
networks (without adding fibers).
Transparency: Each optical channel can
carry any transmission format (different
asynchronous bit rates, analog or digital).
Scalability Buy and install equipment for
additional demand as needed.
Wavelength routing and switching:
Wavelength is used as another dimension
to time and space.
KEY FEATURES OF WDM
Fiber For WDM
Multimode Fiber: There are several electro-
magnetic modes that are stable within the fiber,
Ex: TE01, TM01 .
The injected power from the source is distributed
across all these modes .
WDM is not possible with multimode fibers.
Single Mode Fiber: Only the fundamental mode
will exist.
All the coupled energy will be in this mode.
This mode occupies a very narrow spectrum
making Wavelength Division Multiplexing possible
WDM, CWDM and DWDM

Early WDM systems transported two or four
wavelengths that were widely spaced.

WDM and the follow on technologies of CWDM
and DWDM have evolved well beyond this early
limitation.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM):

A simple WDM system uses two wavelengths of
two different transmission windows, i.e. 1310 nm
and 1550 nm.


Coarse WDM:

Coarse WDM (CWDM) typically uses 20-nm spacing (3000
GHz) of up to 18 channels.

The CWDM grid is made up of 18 wavelengths defined
within the range 1270 nm to 1610 nm spaced by 20 nm.

Dense WDM:

Recent advances in DWDM technologies have significantly
increased achievable capacities and distances for optical
transmission systems.

Dense WDM common spacing may be 200, 100, 50, or 25
GHz with channel count reaching up to 128 or more
channels at distances of several thousand kilometers with
amplification and regeneration along such a route.
Types of WDM System
CWDM & DWDM
The fundamental difference between CWDM and DWDM is
one of only degree. DWDM spaces the wavelengths more
closely than CWDM, and therefore has a greater overall
capacity .
The difference between WDM, CWDM and DWDM is
fundamentally one of only degree.
DWDM spaces the wavelengths more closely than does
WDM, and therefore has a greater overall capacity.
WDM, CWDM and DWDM use single-mode fiber to
carry multiple light waves of differing frequencies.
WDM, CWDM and DWDM
WDM technology uses multiple wavelengths
to transmit information over a single fiber.
Coarse WDM (CWDM) has wider channel
spacing (20 nm) low cost.
Dense WDM (DWDM) has dense channel
spacing (0.8 nm) which allows simultaneous
transmission of 16+ wavelengths high
capacity.

ITU-T Standard Transmission DWDM
windows
2
c
v

| |
A = A
|
\ .
Principles of DWDM
BW of a modulated laser: 0.001 nm
Typical Guard band: 0.4 1.6 nm
80 nm or 14 THz @1300 nm band
120 nm or 15 THz @ 1550 nm
Discrete wavelengths form individual channels that
can be modulated, routed and switched
individually.
These operations require variety of passive and
active devices.
2
c
v

| |
A = A
|
\ .
Nortel OPTERA 640 System
64 wavelengths each carrying 10 Gb/s
WDM SYSTEM PERFORMS THE
FOLLOWING MAIN FUNCTIONS:
Generating the signal
The source, a solid-state laser, must provide stable light within a
specific, narrow bandwidth that carries the digital data, modulated
as an analog signal.
Combining the signals
Modern WDM/DWDM systems employ multiplexers to combine
the signals.
There is some inherent loss associated with multiplexing and
demultiplexing.
This loss is dependent upon the number of channels but can
be mitigated with optical amplifiers, which boost all the
wavelengths at once without electrical conversion.
Transmitting the signals
The effects of crosstalk and optical signal degradation or loss
must be reckoned (consideration) with fiber optic transmission.
These effects can be minimized by controlling variables such as
channel spacing's, wavelength tolerance, and laser power levels.
Over a transmission link, the signal may need to be optically
amplified.
Separating the received signals
At the receiving end, the multiplexed signals must be separated
out.
Although this task would appear to be simply the opposite of
combining the signals, it is actually more technically difficult.
Receiving the signals
The demultiplexed signal is received by a photodetector.
WDM SYSTEM PERFORMS THE
FOLLOWING MAIN FUNCTIONS:
:: WDM COMPONENTS ::
Key components for WDM
Passive Optical Components
Wavelength Selective Splitters
Wavelength Selective Couplers
Wavelength Selective Circulators
Wavelength Selective Isolators
Active Optical Components
Tunable Optical Filter
Light Source & Detectors
Optical amplifier
Add-drop Multiplexer and De-multiplexer
Light Sources for WDM

Lasers needed for WDM systems are almost same as
lasers for ordinary long distance communication.
However, some requirements are more critical with
WDM and a number of new requirements become
apparent.
Spectral Width and Linewidth
In general in a dense WDM system we need a laser with
only one line in its spectrum.
This will mean either a DFB or a DBR laser.
In general the narrower the linewidth, the better
performance, but this will usually be a cost/benefit
tradeoff.

Wavelength Stability
In most long-distance (single channel) systems
we need very stable, narrow linewidth lasers to
minimize the effects of dispersion and things like
mode partition noise.
However, in a WDM system we need to
minimize the change in wavelength over time.
A shift of a nm or two taking place over a few
seconds might not bother a regular WAN single
channel system but it would disrupt a WDM one.

Optical Couplers & Splitters
Couplers are the simplest optical devices.
They are passive and completely
bidirectional in nature in the sense that we
can interchange the input and output ports.
Couplers are N x M, where N and M are
integers.
In other words, we can have N input
segments (fibers) and M output segments
(fibers).
The principle is to fuse the cores of the N input
fibers to the cores of M output fibers so as to
create a power transfer device.
Practically, 2 x 2 couplers are most common
and are known as 3dB couplers because of the 3
dB loss in power at each output port due to a
signal at one of the input ports.
Couplers find applications for monitoring WDM
ports as well as for passively adding channels
into a fiber.
They are also used in passive optical networks
(PONs).



Circulators
A circulator is a multiport device that
allows signals to propagate in certain
directions based on the port that the signal
came from (incident port).
In Figure, the signal from port 1 moves
freely to port 2; while the signal from port
2 cannot go to port 1, but it can go to port
3.
Likewise, the signal from port 3 can go to
port 1 but not to port 2.

The operation is analogous to an optical valve,
which allows unidirectional propagation only.

Isolators

An isolator is a device that allows light to pass
along a fiber in one direction but not in the
opposite direction.

Operation of laser diodes (LD) and optical
amplifiers (EDFA) become unstable and
generate noise when returned light enters.

Optical isolator utilize Faraday effect to cut off
the returned beam and stabilize the operation of
lasers and amplifiers.


However, one optical phenomenon is not bi-
directional.
This is the Faraday Effect.
This effect is polarization dependent so in order
to use it one has to take account of polarization.

Dielectric Thin-Film Filters

A dielectric thin-film filter (TFF) is used as an
optical band pass filter.
This means that it allows a particular, very
narrow wavelength band to pass straight through
it and reflects all others.
The basis of these devices is a classical Fabry-
Perot filter structure, which is a cavity formed by
two parallel, highly reflective mirror surfaces.
This structure is called a Fabry-Perot
interferometer or an etalon or thin-film resonant
cavity filter.

A Fabry Perot cavity consists of two reflective
surfaces that are separated by a hollow region.
The distance between the reflective surfaces can
be made to change by changing the current
associated with the transducer, responsible for
creating the cavity.

The reflective surfaces are with reflectivity, that
is a function of the operating wavelength.

The reflectivity can be made to change for
different resonant wavelengths.

For a resonating cavity, the resonant wavelength
is the only wavelength, and it does not suffer
reflection from one of the two mirrored walls.

DWDM
:: MODULATORS ::
Modulation takes place in
external cavity.
Periodic LASER source is
used.
Increases extinction ratioo.
The process of imposing data on light stream is called
Modulation.
Laser is directly
modulated with data.
DWDM
:: MZM EXTERNAL MODULATOR ::
Works based on interference of light by changing phase .
Use of electro-optic effect, where an applied voltage induces
a change in refractive index of the material.
Optical
Multiplexer/De-Multiplexer
Optical Multiplexers receive several spatially
separated wavelengths and form a single beam that
consists of all these wavelengths.
De-Multiplexers perform the reverse functionality
of multiplexers; they receive a multi-wavelength
beam and separate it spatially into its wavelength
components; that is, each wavelength appears at a
different output.
Different MUX-DEMUX Technologies
Arrayed Waveguide Grating: AWG
Fiber Bragg Grating: FBG
Thin Film Filters: TFF
Diffraction Grating: DG

DWDM
Works based on Interference principle.
Two propagating signals can be made to obtain different phase
shifts by varying the lengths of the two arms.
The signals, upon interfering with each other at coupler B,
might have constructive or destructive interference.
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI)
WDM
Diffraction Grating
Multiplexer
Diffraction Grating
(De) Multiplexer

FBG
MZI with FBG Multiplexer
MZI with FBG DeMultiplexer
DeMUX
MUX
Circulator with FBG (De)Multiplexer

Optical Add-Drop Multiplexor (OADM)
OADM

3

3

DWDM
Works based on Interference and Grating principle.
An AWG device consists of many waveguides of different
lengths converging at the same point (s).
Signals coming through each of these waveguides travel
through a length such that they interfere from the signals
through the other waveguides (at the converging point) either
constructively or destructively.
:: Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) ::
TFF
Thin Film Filter (De)Multiplexer
Optical Switch
1-input 2-outoput illustration with four
wavelengths





1-D MEMS (micro-electromechanical system) with
dispersive optics
Dispersive element separates the s from inputs
MEMS independently switches each
Dispersive element recombines the switched s
into outputs
1-D MEMS
Micro-mirror
Array
Digital Mirror
Control
Electronics
1011
Wavelength
Dispersive Element
Input Fiber

Output Fiber 1

Output Fiber 2
Input & Output
fiber array
All-Optical Switching
Optical Cross-Connects (OXC)
Wavelength Routing Switches (WRS)
route a channel from any I/P port to any O/P port
Natively switch s while they are still multiplexed
Eliminate redundant optical-electronic-optical
conversions
DWDM
Fibers
in
DWDM
Demux
DWDM
Demux
DWDM
Fibers
out
DWDM
Mux
DWDM
Mux

All-optical
OXC
Wavelength () Converters (WC)
improve utilization of available wavelengths
on links
needed at boundaries of different networks
all-optical WCs being developed
greatly reduce blocking probabilities
No Wavelength converters
1
2
3

New request
1 3
With Wavelength converters
1
2
3

New request
1 3
WC
Link

Point To Point Systems

Network Systems

Point to Multipoint
Ring
Mesh

WDM
OPTICAL SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA

DWDM
:: SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA ::
It is not a small task to put the components together (e.g.
fibers, connectors, lasers, detectors, etc.), so that the whole
will function as a communication system with desirable
characteristics.
Proper design/ engineering is requires for this task.
(1) Primary Design Criteria:
Link Length
Data Rate/BW
(2) Secondary Design Criteria:
System Fidelity: BER, OSNR, Q-factor
Cost: Components, installation, maintenance
Upgradeability: Future Planning

DWDM
System Factor Considerations
Type of Fiber Single-mode or Multimode
Operating Wavelength 780, 850, 1310 and 1550 nm
typical
Transmitter Power Typically expressed in dBm
Source Type LED or Laser
Receiver Sensitivity and
Overload
Characteristics
Typically expressed in dBm
Detector Type PIN Diode or APD

Factors for Evaluating Fiber Optic System Design

DWDM
System Factor Considerations
Modulation Code AM, FM, PCM or Digital
Bit Error Rate (BER)
(Digital Systems Only)
10
-9
,10
-12
Typical
Signal to Noise Ratio Specified in decibels (dB)
Number of Connectors Loss increases with the number of
connectors
Number of Splices Loss is Loss increases with the number of
splices
Environmental
Requirements
Humidity, Temperature,
Exposure to sunlight
Mechanical Requirements Flammability, Indoor/Outdoor
Application

Factors for Evaluating Fiber Optic System Design


DWDM
OPTICAL SYSTEM engineering

DWDM


:: SYSTEM ENGINEERING ::

DWDM


:: SYSTEM ENGINEERING ::
:: DWDM SYSTEM DESIGN ::
DISPERSION LIMITED LIGHTWAVE SYSTEMS
2
2 2 2
16 8327 (Gbps) - kms
2

D
B L B L
c

t
< <

So from above equations we can find


If System Bit Rate = 2.5 Gbps L < 1332.32 kms

If System Bit Rate = 10 Gbps L < 83.27 kms

If System Bit Rate = 40 Gbps L < 5.204 Kms



We can conclude that as B increases, L decreases with the square root of B.

DWDM

1. Power Budget
2. Bandwidth/Rise Time Budget
:: DWDM SYSTEM DESIGN ::
LOSS LIMITED LIGHTWAVE SYSTEMS
( )
Max
in r
P P
L
o

Loss Compensation using Optical Amplifiers [1]

Noise

Accumulation Resulting from Multistage Amplification

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR
Consider a physical link AB, a long-haul fiber DWDM link
(a link that is several hundred kilometers). , as shown in
Figure.
Amplifiers are placed periodically at repeated intervals to
boost signal power.

Therefore, a signal can reach much farther than the
maximum allowable accumulated loss due to the fiber (L).

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR

Each amplifier stage adds its own component of
ASE noise and degrades the OSNR further.

Moreover, every amplifier amplifies the already
present noise.

This noise is present throughout the spectra and
almost impossible to be removed.

It is imperative to devise a method to calculate the
OSNR (output) at the end of an N stage-amplified
system and see if the value N is still valid.

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR
In an OSNR-based design, we must ensure that OSNR of
the final stage is in compliance with system OSNR
requirements and hence the BER requirements.
To make the system support a particular BER, it is necessary
to make the OSNR system design compliant.
The OSNR of each stage is given by,


Where NF
stage
is the noise figure of the stage,
h is Plank's constant (6.6260 x 10
-34
),
v is the optical frequency (193 THz), and
f is the optical bandwidth of the receiver (0.1 nm or 12.5
GHz).

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR

DWDM
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR
Remember:
In above equation of OSNR, P
in
is in dBm.

:: DWDM SYSTEM DESIGN ::
DESIGN OF POINT-TO-POINT DWDM LINK BASED ON OSNR
Single Stage N Stage
OSNR OSNR

in in
stage
P P
NF h f NF hv f N v
= =
I D D
OSNR (dB) 58 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 10log
in
dB P dBm db NF dB N = + I

DWDM
DISPERSION COMPENSATION IN WDM

DWDM
DISPERSION COMPENSATION IN WDM

DWDM
OSNR & DISPERSION BASED SYSTEM

DWDM
WDM SYSTEM DESIGN EXAMPLES

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
SOLUTION

DWDM
EXAMPLES

DWDM
EXERCISES