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Torque, Rotational Equilibrium & Simple Machines

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Objectives
Distinguish between torque and force. Calculate the magnitude of a torque on an object. Identify the six types of simple machines. Calculate the mechanical advantage of a simple machine.

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Rotational Motion

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Rotational Motion

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Concept Check Torque


You are using a wrench to loosen a rusty nut. Which arrangement will be the most effective in loosening the nut? 1 5. all are equally effective 2

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Concept Check Torque


You are using a wrench to loosen a rusty nut. Which arrangement will be the most effective in loosening the nut? 1 5. all are equally effective 2

Since the forces are all the same, the only difference is the lever arm. The arrangement with the largest lever arm (case #2) will provide the largest torque.
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Concept Check Torque


Two forces produce the same torque. Does it follow that they have the same magnitude? 1. yes 2. no 3. depends

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Concept Check Torque


Two forces produce the same torque. Does it follow that they have the same magnitude? 1. yes 2. no 3. depends

Because torque is the product of force times lever arm (which is a distance), two different forces that act at different distances could still give the same torque.

Fd sin

torque = force lever arm


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The Magnitude of a Torque

Fd sin
torque = force lever arm
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The Magnitude of a Torque


F
d d sin

lever arm d sin 90 d

lever arm d sin


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The Magnitude of a Torque

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Torque

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Torque and the Lever Arm

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The Sign of a Torque

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Simple Machines

in out

Fin d in Fout d out

Fout din MA Fin d out


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Simple Machines
The diagrams show two examples of a trunk being loaded onto a truck.

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Mechanical Efficiency

Ideally, Wout Win

In reality, Wout Win

Wout eff Win


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Sample Problem
Torque A basketball is being pushed by two players during tip-off. One player exerts an upward force of 15 N at a perpendicular distance of 14 cm from the axis of rotation.The second player applies a downward force of 11 N at a distance of 7.0 cm from the axis of rotation. Find the net torque acting on the ball about its center of mass.

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Sample Problem, continued


1. Define Given: F1 = 15 N d1 = 0.14 m Unknown: net = ? Diagram:

F2 = 11 N d2 = 0.070 m

2. Plan Choose an equation or situation: Apply the definition of torque to each force,and add up the individual torques.

= Fd sin net = 1 + 2 = F1d1 + F2d2


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Sample Problem, continued


3. Calculate Substitute the values into the equation and solve: First,determine the torque produced by each force.Use the standard convention for signs.

1 = F1d1 = (15 N)(0.14 m) = 2.1 Nm 2 = F2d2 = (11 N)(0.070 m) = 0.77 Nm net = 1 + 2 = 2.1 Nm 0.77 Nm net = 2.9 Nm
4. Evaluate The net torque is negative, so the ball rotates in a clockwise direction.

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Summarize
What are the key ideas from this lesson?

What connections can I make with other ideas?

What questions do I still have?

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