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Planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control Prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections

This covers things as varied as when and why to get pregnant, the number of children that are wanted, how to deal with fertility issues, how to avoid getting pregnant, whether to consider an abortion or adoption if an unwanted pregnancy occurs.


perfect method does not exist Abstinence-practiced perfectly methods change based on the clients circumstances

Contraceptives 30%

of married and 61 % of unmarried females change methods within 2 consideration of all factors can help a woman choose the best




Tubal Ligation (BTL)

2nd leading method of birth control Performed in between pregnancies or after childbirth, same day surgery

The fallopian tubes are occluded by clips, band, rings, or destroying portion of

the tubes with electro-coagulation

Rest 24 hrs and no heavy lifting nor intercourse x 1 week

Vasectomy Local anesthesia used, office visit

Vas deferens ligation and removal of section of the vas or cautery Semen no longer contains sperm

Lower morbidity rates than BTL

Lower cost than BTL May take up to 3 months for completion with 2 negative samples

Ends contraception issues, less 1% pregnancy risk

Initially hisg cost, low long term cost

Reversal is difficulty, expensive, most likely unsuccessful Surgery complications No STD protection


thickening of cervical mucous to block sperm of follicles and ovulation

Inhibits maturation 8%

failure rate


to coitus

Highly effective Reduces ovarian and endometrial cancer, cramping, blood loss and anemia

Regulates cycle
Return to fertility 3-6 months


Breast tenderness
Melasma No STD protection Mood swings Requires Rx


Combined: estrogen & progesterone OCP mode of action Self placement Flexible ring placed intravaginally for 3 weeks and 1 free week 95% effective, when used correctly

Unrelated to coitus

Easy placement
Private No fitting necessary No weight restriction

Must be comfortable with insertion


like OCPs
only risks

Expulsion No

STD protection


Evra Patch

Combined: estrogen & progesterone

Absorbed via the skin Apply to clean, dry skin not tattooed, broken skin. Place on abdomen, buttock, arm, upper back/shoulder-NEVER near breasts 99% effective, when used correctly.


to coitus

Easy to places Convenient



Weight restriction (198 lbs)

Difficult to conceal Skin irritation for some STD protection


T shaped device 5 years Mirena-levonorgestrel (LNG-IUS) Failure rate <0.1% More effective than sterilization Action Para guard copper changes the uterine/ tubal fluids to impair sperm function. Mirena thickens cervical mucous Inhibits sperm function Causes the endometrium to react to the foreign body Only small amount of systemic hormone absorbed

Very safe

Insert any time; medically placed

Low long-term cost Unrelated to coitus returns promptly


Some complain feeling the string (rare)

No STD protection initially high up front cost Must be surgically placed

Can be expelled without the womans knowledge


infection, ectopic pregnancy, Abortion, perforation educate the on the signs

Progesterone hormone

IM injection
5 days of cycle or restart protocol ovulation



Do not massage the site 97% effective


to coitus

Eventual amenorrhea effective


Prescription only

Irregular mestrual
Weight gain Decreased libido Depression Nervousness

Chemical Spermicides Condoms Diaphragm Cervical cap

Spermicides: Foam, films, suppositories

Chemicals that kill sperm Cream, foam, gel based, tablets To be used WITH barrier methods 29% effective used alone

not recommended


and east to use

No Rx Inexpensive

Increases lubrication
Increase effectiveness of condom use (97%)


to coitus

Interrupts spontaneity
can be messy new application 1 hr effectiveness No STD protection

Mechanical Barrier Latex/ plastic /lambskin Available in various colors, textures, flavors Placed over penis to prevent passage of sperm to the uterus The ONLY male contraceptive 15% failure rate When used alone Never use 2 condoms at the same time Check expiration dates Use only water soluble lubricants Apply correctly to prevent breakage


STD protection

Quick and east to use No Rx

Increase effectiveness with spermicidal use (97%)



Can slip or break Some complain of decrease coital sensation

Check for holes / expiration


pouch that fits over the cervix like a diaphragm and another ring that extends outside the vagina which partially covers the perineum

21 %failure rate

Do NOT use in combination with male condom


Silicone cap placed over the cervix w/ spermacide on both side No pressure on the bladder Can remain in place for 48 hrs Cap has loop device to help with removal Cap size dependent on gravida

Replace after 2 years

No oil based lubricants 16% failure rate No STD protection

Calendar Standard

Days Method Basal Body Temperature Cervical mucous Symtothermal method


on knowledge of how the female body and menstrual cycle works Uses the physiological cues to predict ovulation Ovum may be fertilized for 24 time frame Sperm can live up to 3-5 days, 7days in some studies

Based on timing ovulation 14 days before menses. Keep track of cycles at least 6 months to determine pattern Must abstain or use barrier method during fertile times Can be unreliable

String of beads that is color coded to keep track of days/fertile days. Designed for women that have cycles that vary from 26-32 days Coitus is allowed on days 1-7 and 20 to the end of the cycle

Days 8-19 are considered fertile days


woman charts her oral temperature each am, before getting out of


During ovulation, temperature rises 0.4-0.8 F

Coitus the day before the temperature rise may well result in pregnancy
Keep track of cycles at least 6 months to monitor temperature changes


Ovulation Method This method is based on changes in the cervical secretions caused by a rise in the estrogen levels during the follicular phase of the cycle Wiping from the vaginal orifice with tissue each day Couples must avoid intercourse from time clear stretchy mucus is first present to 4 days after the end of slippery mucus Spinnbarket method


Combines the calendar, BBT, and cervical mucus methods AND Paying close attention to symptoms like weight gain, bloating, mittelschmertz --

Ovulation is near!

Advantages Acceptable to most religious groups Avoids drugs, chemicals and devices Can use barrier method during fertile times


COUPLES must be highly motivated

Abstinence is a vital piece to the success

Perfect use 95-98% effectivetypical 75% Method is very unforgiving NO STD protection


inhibits ovulation Sucking and prolactin interfere w/ secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and LH No bottle, solid foods can be given then another method must be used

Menses resumes in 6 months regardless, Must be highly motivated Low risk pregnancy only if used right No STD protection Least reliable


Removal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation Failure rate 27% Men must have great control May be unsatisfying for some couples

Misjudging timing may cause pregnancy

Educate and do not judge Least reliable

Family Planning (FP) is having the desired number of children and when you want to have them by using safe and effective modern methods. Proper birth spacing is having children 3 to 5 years apart, which is best for the health of the mother, her child, and the family.

Reproductive Health Bill, popularly known as the RH Bill, is a Philippine

bill aiming to provide universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. The bill has become the center of a contentious national debate.